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Abstract  

The effect of some environmental ligands and certain fertilizers on the complexation of strontium with humic acid wasinvestigated colorimetrically and radiometrically. The results indicate that Na2-EDTA, Na3-citrate and NaCl compete to complex strontium in solution with the sequence: chloride < citrate < EDTA while Na3-phosphate has the reverse behavior. In the case of nitrogen containing fertilizers, the results show that urea, Mg-ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate increase the availability of strontium to plants and microorganisms.

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Abstract  

It was found that some trivalent cations form precipitates with humic acid at pH 4.2. The precipitates contain less metal cations than suggested by the neutralization-charge model for soluble complexes based on the available anionic sites. It is suggested that cations, which can form inner-sphere complexes, may precipitate before they are completely neutralized, while those that do not form complexes precipitate only after complete neutralization.

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Abstract  

In this study, the sorption behavior of two important contaminants, phenol and radioactive cesium (137Cs), onto surfactant modified insolubilized humic acid (SMIA) were investigated as a function of time, sorbate concentration utilizing the radiotracer method and UV–Vis spectroscopy. Phenol sorption process was well described by both Freundlich and Tempkin type isotherms, and cesium sorption was described by Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherms. It was found that SMIA adsorbs both cations and phenolic substances. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption behavior of phenol obey the pseudo second order rate law. FTIR spectroscopic technique was used to understand the structural changes during modification process with surfactants.

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Abstract  

Commercial humic acid (HA) was anchored onto silica gel (SiAPTS) previously modified with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS). HA was anchored onto SiAPTS through two routes: adsorption and covalent chemical immobilization onto the surface. The adsorption occurred by adding SiAPTS to HA in an aqueous solution, producing SiHA1, while chemical immobilization was performed by reacting HA suspended in N,N-dimethylformamide with SiAPTS, to yield SiHA2. The infrared spectra confirm HA immobilization using both procedures and the termogravimetric results showed that the anchored compounds have significantly thermal stability increased. While natural HA presents a thermal stability up to 200C, the anchored compound presents a thermal stability near to 750C.

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Abstract  

Catalytic ozonation has recently been used as a new means of contaminant removal from water and wastewater. In this study, bone charcoal (BC), a new catalyst prepared under laboratory conditions, was used to catalyze the ozonation of humic substances (HS) in aqueous solutions. The catalytic effect of bone charcoal and the relevant parameters of this ozonation process (solution pH, temperature, scavenger effect, humic acids concentration and BC dosage) were investigated. In the catalytic ozonation experiments, the degradation kinetics was investigated. The reaction rate and the rate constant were determined. The results showed that using a BC catalyst in the ozonation of HS produced a 1.43- and 1.56-fold increase in reaction rates compared to the sole ozonation processes (SOP) under acidic and alkaline conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the applicability of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation with bone charcoal (HCOBC) to humic acid degradation was evaluated by performing comparisons with H2O2, O3, O3/H2O2 and O3/H2O2/BC processes. With the use of the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be 10 kJ mol−1. The results also showed that under the different temperatures, the reaction of the catalytic ozonation of HS was defined as diffusion controlled in accordance with the activation energy. These findings suggest that the HCOBC can be applied as an efficient and feasible method for the removal of HS from water.

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Abstract  

Sorption of technetium on hematite colloids, at varying pH (3–10), has been studied in absence and presence of humic acid using 95mTc-96Tc radiotracers. Technetium was found to be weakly sorbed on hematite at lower pH (<5) values, while no sorption was observed at higher pH values. Humic acid was found to have no effect on the sorption of technetium on hematite under aerobic conditions, while at lower pH values small reduction was observed which was attributed to the reduced zeta potential of the hematite colloids owing to the strong sorption of humic acid.

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Abstract  

The complexation of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions with the humic acids has been investigated at various pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.4) in 0.1M NaClO4 solution using solvent extraction technique. Two humic acids are used in this study: humic acid extracted from the soil of Taejon on the Okchon Basin of Korea (TJHA) and commercially available one from Aldrich Chemical Co. (AHA). The total carboxylate group concentrations were determined to be 3.58 meq/g and 4.59 meq/g for Taejon and Aldrich humic acids, respectively. The conditional stability constants (log 1 and log 2), dependent on the pH of the solution, of the complexes of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions with the humic acids have been determined at the ionic medium of 0.1M NaClO4. The values of stability constants with the degree of ionization of TJHA for Eu and Am complexes are quite well agreed with those of Lake Bradford humic acid (LBHA), indicating that structural characteristics of TJHA and LBHA may be quite similar to one another.

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Abstract  

The interaction of UO2 2+ with various humic acids (HA's) has been studied by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The experiments were done in 10 mM acetate buffer with pH 3.3 and 4.0, to avoid hydrolysis of uranium. It was found that in slightly acidic media and low HA concentration (<3 mM), two complexes with uranium(VI) are formed by fast kinetics and uranyl migrates as cationic species. Electrophoretic mobilities are decreasing with the increasing HA/uranium ratio and a low soluble neutral compound is also formed. In addition, it was found that at HA concentrations higher than 3 mM negatively charged species are formed. Similar results were obtained for HA's of different origin (soil, peat, coal derived, IHSS standards). Conditional stability constants of the complexes UO2 2+-HA for Fluka I HA, were estimated to be log 1 = 4.18±0.06 and log 2 = 7.28±0.18.

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Abstract  

Effects of pH, Eu(III) concentration, ionic strength, temperature and humic acid (HA) on Eu(III) sorption to iron oxides were investigated in detail. The sorption of Eu(III) to iron oxides was significantly dependent on pH and weakly dependent on ionic strength, and higher temperature was gainful to Eu(III) sorption. In the presence of HA, Eu(III) sorption was enhanced significantly at low pH; whilst obvious negative effect was observed in higher pH range. Below 12 mg/L HA, HA could obviously enhanced Eu(III) sorption to iron oxides, nevertheless Eu(III) sorption decreased steeply with increasing HA while HA exceeded 12 mg/L. The results were helpful for understanding radionuclides behaviors in natural environment.

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Summary  

In the wide pH range of 4 to 10, distribution ratios of Am(III)-humate species to free Am(III) ions (D AmHA = [Am(III)HA]/[Am(III)]free) were determined at 10 ppm (4.7 . 10-5 eq/dm3) of humic acid and 0.1M NaClO4 by a cation-exchange equilibrium method under N2 atmosphere. The D AmHA was insensitive to an increase in pH (logD AmHA ≈ 2.6-2.8), which indicates the formation of mixed hydroxo-humate complexes. The present D AmHA value is larger than the estimated value from available stability constants for ternary complexations by spectroscopic analysis (1.4-2.1) and is markedly smaller than that of Eu(III) obtained by the dialysis method (3.7-8.0) reported in the literatures. The D AmHA obtained in the present study is widely applicable to estimate the actinide(III) and lanthanide(III) sorption on minerals in the presence of humic and fulvic acids.

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