Authors:K. Szabó, L. Nagy, G. Török, D. Hegedüs, and G. Fóti
A control system for monitoring the radioactive concentration in aqueous wastes of nuclear installations was elaborated. The
mobile station developed for in situ control enables simultaneous measurement of gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.15–2.0
MeV and that of beta radiation in the energy range of 0.3–2.0 MeV by means of a combined scintillation detector. Disturbing
effects of accompanying and secundary radiations on the determination of the counting efficiency vs. radiation energy functions
used in calculation of the radioactive concentration limits as well as some experiences during a long time of operation of
the system have been discussed.
The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with US Customs and Border Protection to assist in the installation of
radiation portal monitors. Our challenge was to provide radioactive sources—both gamma and neutron emitting, to a number of
ports of entry where radiation portal monitors are being installed and calibrated. A portable shipping case has been designed
such that it meets the DOT requirements for a “limited quantity” shipment. Over three hundred shipments, both domestic and
international, were made in FY2008 using this type of shipping case.
A complete series of measurements have been performed in the thermal neutron beam at the Budapest Research Reactor to determine the prompt k0 factors for every stable element. After the installation of the cold neutron source, the flux of the beam increased by more than an order of magnitude, which made possible to determine the k0 and cross-section values having low cross-sections with a better accuracy. The paper presents the new data for the first set of low-cross-section elements and they are compared to the best literature data.
Nowadays natural disasters phenomena as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis or earthquakes, are still difficult to prevent. Based on signaling of the phenomenon imminent appearance in the destructive area, important limitations in human losses and material damages will be carried out. For that reason, WARNING turned into a key objective, both in theoretical and practical research. For the earthquakes, warning intervals are nevertheless very short - seconds to maximum one minute (Mexico City case). Even if the time window is reduced, automated decision measures are possible to establish in case of an well organized system, mainly for: protection of dangerous chemical units and oil installations; shutdown valves of the natural gas pipelines to prevent fire hazard; protection of nuclear power plants and other high-risk nuclear objectives; electrical insulating of the power distribution network systems; alerting of emergency services, alerting of civil protection, and particularly of civil population; protection of railway transportation systems etc. In Romania, the major seismic risk zone is located in Vrancea region. The earthquakes occurring in this area are the main sources of the seismic hazard on the Romania territory. Seismotectonic characteristics of the Vrancea region offered the opportunity to create and develop a rapid seismic warning system. This system is simple, reasonably low-priced and robust and allows warning in an approximately 25 seconds time window for Bucharest. Warning signal obtained will be issued at the responsible factors and specific users in order to control automated blocking of the installations and to carry out the required protection actions.
The essay describes two copies of documents from the hand of Staatskanzler Wenzel Anton Kaunitz-Rietberg sent to the Swiss engraver and art dealer Christian von Mechel. The letters were written at the time when Mechel was involved with the installation of paintings from the Imperial collection in the Belvedere palace, Vienna. The first letter is dated June 14th, 1779, and tells of several paintings that Mechel had suggested the Austrian court; one being identified as “Decent from the Cross” by Sandrart, which was included in Mechel's Belvedere hanging, and is now to be found in Cluj/Klausenburg. The document also refers to four paintings by Teniers in Nymphenburg offered by Kurfürst Karl Theodore von Pfalz-Sulzbach, (from 1777 onwards also Kurfürst von Bayern), who had retained Mechel as his agent in this affair. These four works, showing the interior of Archduke Leopold Wilhelm's paintings gallery, could very well be the set of paintings now in the Bayrische Gemäldesammlung in Munich. This would suggest that the transfer to the Austrian court must have failed to happen for reasons not yet known. The second letter is dated July 28th, 1790 and reveals an increasing of impatience towards Mechel, who Kaunitz implys is causing delays in the completion of the gallery installation. Kaunitz further makes reference to a large painting by Frans Floris, which could correspond to “The Last Judgement” (ill. 4).
Authors:P. Sawant, S. Prabhu, P. Kalsi, and K. Pendharkar
Individual monitoring of radiation workers handling Pu in various nuclear installations requires the detection of trace levels
of plutonium in bioassay samples. It is necessary to develop methods that can detect urinary excretion of Pu in fraction of
mBq range. Therefore, a sensitive method such as fission track analysis has been developed for the measurement of trace levels
of Pu in bioassay samples. In this technique, chemically separated plutonium from the sample and a Pu standard were electrodeposited
on planchettes and covered with Lexan solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) and irradiated with thermal neutrons in APSARA
reactor of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The fission track densities in the Lexan films of the sample and the standard
were used to calculate the amount of Pu in the sample. The minimum amount of Pu that can be analyzed by this method using
doubly distilled electronic grade (E. G.) reagents is about 12 μBq/L.
This paper focuses on Vasily Shukshin’s “working records” dated from 1966. It is established that a lot of contexts and names are important for the interpretation of these records: from the antique myths to Russian literature. In the paper, it is proved that the motive of the waterway of a ship appears in Shukshin’s texts as the concentrated symbol of spiritual aspirations, warm rushes, as the allegory of movement towards the aim and the overcoming of obstacles. At the same time, it is also a symbol of moral ascension, which is shown by the reflections about intelligence as the aim of the artist. The conclusion drawn is that the poetics of Vasily Shukshin’s texts represents a very open and dialogical structure with wide referential installations.
Authors:Y. Dali, M. Tupin, P. Bossis, F. Valdivieso, and M. Pijolat
The fuel claddings in the Pressurised Water Reactor are corroded in water at high temperature and high pressure. The technical
device ableto follow continuously the corrosion rate in conditions close to this medium does not yet exist. That is the reason
why a high pressure thermogravimetric installation based on magnetic suspension has been designed to study in situ the oxidation
kinetics of the zirconium based alloys under water vapour until 50 bars of pressure at 415°C. The accuracy of measurements
is about 5·10−5 g under 2 bars, and 10−4 g under 50 bars. The reproducibility of measurements was verified and the deviation regarding post test weighing at room
temperature is around 5·10−5 g what is clearly satisfying. Finally, the results presented in this work allow validating the high pressure thermogravimetric
measurements obtained with this magnetic suspension device.
The first aim of our research is to calculate the solar irradiance on roofs assuming clear sky and real (climatologically typical) conditions, respectively, and compare them in a densely built inner city study area in Szeged (Hungary). The second aim is to analyse the shading effect of the tree-crowns on the possible solar energy gain of building roofs. The calculation of the climatologically potential solar energy gain based on an empirical atmospheric transmittance (calculated from the measured global radiation values). The results show that in the case of clear sky condition the urban vegetation (tree-crowns) causes significant potential solar energy loss on the roofs, but in the real situations this effect is less significant. These obtained results clearly illustrate how useful tool could be the presented calculation method at the economical and technical planning stage of the installation of solar systems on roofs.
Authors:V. Nazarov, M. Frontasyeva, P. Lavdanskij, and N. Stephanov
The results of activation studies of concrete ingredients for shielding structures of nuclear installations in the aspect of their decommissioning are given. It is shown that for the long-lived induced radioactivity of construction mineral materials irradiated for 30 years and cooled for more than one year such radionuclides as calcium, iron, cobalt, caesium and europium are responsible. Elemental content of the binding agent and raw material components for their production is obtained by neutron activation analysis. The results show that the type of the binding agent influences to a great extent the concrete shielding activity. The concentration of the above mentioned elements should be taken into account even at the stage of nuclear power plants design. It would allow one to make a prognosis on the volume and radioactivity of wastes as on the radioactivity effect felt by the staff engaged in the decommissioning.