There are two basic types of Japanese female shamans, representing two different categories regarding their social position and their musical activities. (1) The medium type shamaness, the itako comes from a stratum of the rural society which lives in relative modesty and whose musical activities belong to folk art. The ceremony takes place in the itako’s house, in front of the house altar, kneeling on tatami. She improvises dialogs with previously living persons who speak through her mouth, or recites stories, ballads to “entertain” the deities. Among her musical instruments, the weapon-like catalpa bow holds an outstanding place. (2) The other type of shamaness, the miko is connected with the functions of shrines, their social position is basically on par with that of priests active in Shintô shrines. The miko’s main musical activity is to perform ceremonial dances in front of the shrine. Their dances are accompanied by chant and/or small instrumental groups (flute, drum). The third, indispensable instrument is the sistrum, held by the dancers themselves. The paper is based on the author’s personal field research conducted in 1988 and 1994.
To satisfy the needs for industrial standards for thermal analysis in the Japanese polymer industry, round-robin tests of
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and thermodilatometry (TD)
have been carried out recently. The results are discussed in this short review.
The DSC applications tested were not only for determination of transition temperature but also for measurements of the transition
heat and heat capacity. The TG task group did not aim at longterm thermal endurance studies, but relative thermal stability
in molding and estimation of filler content, residual solvent content, etc. TMA was found to be a useful tool for measuring
softening temperature and heat distortion temperature, especially for high-temperature engineering plastics, instead of the
Vicat test which has temperature limitations. For temperature calibration of DSC and TG, ICTA-NIST certified reference materials
were used together with other potential temperature standards; some inorganic substances and alloys were not found to be preferable
to pure metals. For TMA and TD metal plates were found to be very useful for temperature calibration. Analysis of the round-robin
test results also clarified present status of practical applications of thermal analysis, such as reproducibility and causes
Authors:H. Oda, T. Masuda, E. Niu, and T. Nakamura
Radiocarbon ages of 17 ancient Japanese documents of known age and 3 unknown samples were measured by AMS. Radiocarbon dating on the known documents concluded that the Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating because of small discrepancy between the calibrated radiocarbon age and the historical age due to the characteristics of Japanese paper. From the dating of the paper samples of unknown age, the wood-block prints, it was clarified that they had been produced between the 11th century and the first half of the 12th century as the historical information suggested.
Among old Dutch proverbs and those in Japanese there are many similar views of life, wisdom and moral lessons, even though the phrasing may differ. The present author discusses twelve proverbs from Pieter Bruegel the Elder's Netherlandish Proverbs (1559) in Berlin and corresponding old Japanese proverbs and sayings in Japanese art to compare expressions, items of each proverb, meaning, degree of morality and other concerns. The present author also refers to some literary (Erasmus, Anna Bijns, Donaes Idinau and Carolus Tuiman and other literati) as well as visual background (misericords, engravings by Frans Hogenberg, Nicolaes Clock and other artists) before and after Bruegel's time as parallel examples. Proverbs in Ukiyoe, illustrations of proverb books, and cartoons by Japanese artists, such as those by Utagawa Toyokuni the Elder, Utagawa Kuniyoshi and Kawanabe Kyôsai, make good comparisons of Bruegel's work. Bruegel's representation of “Casting roses before swine”corresponds to Kuniyoshi's “Gold coins to a cat.”Both indicate almost the same meaning to give valuable advice or things to those who are unable to appreciate them. However, Bruegel's “He falls from the ox onto the ass”is meant to denote falling from a higher position to a lower one, while Kyôsai's “To jump from a cow to a horse”signifies the opposite situation; that is, a man exchanges his old wife for a young wife. In general, Japanese proverbial images give us the impression of a more comic and humorous sentiment than we find in Bruegel's didactic world.
The present paper aims at giving a wide-scale review and a detailed discussion of the Japanese and Chinese studies on the Timurid — Ming Chinese contacts. The reason for this choice of subject is twofold. Firstly, the study of the Timurid — Ming relations may not only be interesting for the scholars of this particular period in East- and Central Asia, but also for those who desire to obtain a better understanding about the history of the Sino — foreign relations in general. Secondly, while the Western literature of the subject provides studies on so-called “easy-to-read” languages (English, German, French, and Russian), related studies in the Chinese and Japanese literature have never been properly summarised and discussed together. Therefore, the present paper attempts to fill in this gap by providing a detailed review of the Japanese and Chinese studies in which the level of theorisation and approach to the Timurid — Ming Chinese relations will also be discussed, wherever possible.
Although there are 430 govemment and private universities in Japan, only a limited number of them have departments associated with nuclear science education. Moreover, mainly because of financial pressures, this association is often limited to government universities. Nuclear engineering departments are incorporated with only seven of the larger universities, and there are three institutes with nuclear reactors. In these facilities, education in reactor physics, radiation measurements, electromagnetic and material sciences, are conducted. In terms of radiation safety and radiological health physics, tem radioisotope centers and seven radiochemistry laboratories in universities play an important role. Virtually all of the financial support for nuclear education comes from the Japanese Govemment via the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture. These are supplemented via private and corporate grants to various university faculty members. In addition to these universities, and private/corporate research institutes, The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute teaches a short lecture course in nuclear science on a regular basis.
Authors:Y. Narazaki, K. Fujitaka, S. Igarashi, Y. Ishikawa, and N. Fujinami
Seasonal variations of 7Be deposition in regions throughout Japan (26°18'N-43°05'N, 127°54'E-141°27'E) were observed during the period of 1989-1995. The observation indicated that 7Be deposition peaked in spring all over Japan except in the inland central basin. However, spring peak was not always the annual maximum. Along the coastal side of the Japan Sea, especially around Hokuriku region, 7Be deposition was at its maximum in winter. In addition, September peak also was observed in some regions, which was presumably caused by high precipitation or blowing in of northern air stream. Variations were classified into 4 types according to meteorological factors and local geographical conditions: winter peak, double peaks (spring and September peaks), spring peak and non-peak. A correlation between 7Be deposition and precipitation was observed in winter.