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Abstract  

In recent years, the topic of knowledge production has been widely investigated in the advanced countries. However, the process by which knowledge is produced in the developing countries has not been fully explored or characterized. In Korea, the science and engineering fields strongly reflect systems of knowledge production in the universities and demonstrate the dynamics of systems of innovation for knowledge production. Through using a case study including data for knowledge production, in the field of information and telecommunication, the following general trends were observed. Firstly, there has been a trend towards increasing the capabilities for knowledge production, via domestic and foreign collaboration. Secondly, there has been an increasing trend towards the diversification of knowledge sources such as university-industry, and university-public research institutes. Finally, the establishment of a nation's knowledge base is influenced by governmental research and development policies.

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Abstract  

The notion of knowledge-based economy premises that technological knowledge be created, accumulated and disseminated through the interactive learning among principal actors in the national system. This paper analyzes, from a dynamic perspective, the structure of inter-industrial technological knowledge. Both human-driven disembodied channel and capital-driven embodied channel are investigated based on network analysis. The set of empirical data covers the Korean manufacturing sector during the 1980s. Overall, density of network tends to be increasing over time, implying that knowledge network becomes expanded and intensified. A number of distinctive features are identified between knowledge types and industrial categories. The findings in turn render important policy implications that should be addressed when developing technology policy. Clearly, the policy framework needs to be industry-specific and country-specific in accordance with the development stage and industrial structure of reference time.

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This study examines network topologies of interdisciplinary research relationships in science and technology (S&T) and investigates the relational linkages between the interdisciplinary relations and the quality of research performance. A network analysis was performed to evaluate the General Research Grant (GRG) program, an interdisciplinary research funding program of the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF); the dataset covered the 2002–2004 period. The analytical results reveal the hidden network structure of interdisciplinary research relationships and demonstrate that the quality of research performance might be enhanced not only by interdependent pressures placed on various research fields but also by accumulated research capabilities that are relatively difficult to access and reproduce by other research fields.

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This article reports findings from a study of the relationship between citation measures (impact factor and its quartile) among international composition of editorial board and foreign authorship in 17 Korean SCI journals for the three 5-year periods, 1995, 2000, and 2005. With few exceptions, the relationship between international editorial board composition and foreign authorship and citation measures was non-existent, at p > 0.05. However, the international members on editorial boards and foreign authorship of papers in Korean journals have increased greatly over the three 5-year periods, and there has been to a certain degree growth in the visibility and performance of Korean SCI journals in terms of impact factors, but not their quartiles.

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Summary This paper elaborates on the Triple Helix model for measuring the emergence of a knowledge base of socio-economic systems. The ‘knowledge infrastructure’ is measured using multiple indicators: webometric, scientometric, and technometric. The paper employs this triangulation strategy to examine the current state of the innovation systems of South Korea and the Netherlands. These indicators are thereafter used for the evaluation of the systemness in configurations of university-industry-government relations. South Korea is becoming somewhat stronger than the Netherlands in terms of scientific and technological outputs and in terms of the knowledge-based dynamics; South Korea’s portfolio is more traditional than that of the Netherlands. For example, research and patenting in the biomedical sector is underdeveloped. In terms of the Internet-economy, the Netherlands seem oriented towards global trends more than South Korea; this may be due to the high component of services in the Dutch economy.

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Summary  

This paper suggests an international benchmarking method of disembodied knowledge flow structure. Using patent citation as a proxy measure of disembodied knowledge flow, national knowledge network is developed. Structural equivalence measure is applied to comparing the knowledge network of Korea and Taiwan with that of USA. Static and dynamic comparison make it possible to benchmark disembodied knowledge flow structure efficiently and identify  convergent and divergent industries between developing countries and USA. It is also a meso-study that could be conducive to building a comprehensive analytical framework of national innovation system.

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Abstract  

Because R&D conducted in electronics and chemistry has made significant contributions to South Korean economic development, past strategies in technology developments in these fields are addressed. The possibility of capturing national technology strategy and policy characteristics from patent analyses is explored. For the analysis, data were analyzed from 557 US patents in electronics and 108 US patents in chemistry, registered by Korean inventors, between 1989 and 1992. Descriptive statistics of aggregated patent information were equivalently mapped to each strategy in the two fields. Industry-specific features and past technology strategies in electronics and chemistry are identified. Electronics was driven by the private sector, while chemistry was driven by the public sector. Inventors in both fields are seeking clustered innovation on which subsequent innovation can be accumulated and/or applied to numerous heterogeneous fields. Contrary to the stated assumption, many Korean electronic innovations were based on scientific outputs such as papers. Of the knowledge strategy variables, size of invention and number of heterogeneous classifications are considered to be an important factor that affects patent citation counts in both fields.

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Summary Institutions and their aggregates are not the right units of analysis for developing a science policy with cognitive goals in view. Institutions, however, can be compared in terms of their performance with reference to their previous stages. King's (2004) 'The scientific impact of nations' has provided the data for this comparison. Evaluation of the data from this perspective along the time axis leads to completely different and hitherto overlooked conclusions: a new dynamic can be revealed which points to a group of emerging nations. These nations do not increase their contributions marginally, but their national science systems grow endogenously. In addition to publications, their citation rates keep pace with the exponential growth patterns, albeit with a delay. The center of gravity of the world system of science may be changing accordingly.

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universities in the sample) in computer science, USA holds the first rank, followed by UK, Canada, Denmark, Israel, Germany, etc. China-Taiwan holds the 16th rank, followed by Singapore (19th rank), South Korea (23rd rank), China (24th rank) and India (26th

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Abstract  

This article compares empirically the major factors affecting blinded and sighted reviewers in the selection of research proposals to be funded in a "scientifically small" country. Fisher's Z-test shows that the applicant characteristics (rank of undergraduate school where the applicant studied, professional age of the applicant, and academic recognition of the applicant) are the major factors leading to the significantly different evaluation scores between blinded and sighted reviewers. This means that "open" evaluation of research proposals is obviously biased. Policy implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed.

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