Authors:Denis A. Brosnan, John P. Sanders, and Stephanie A. Hart
Characterization of masonry materials from historic structures typically involves petrographic analysis [ 1 , 2 ]. In the standard method for analysis of hardened masonry mortar, a combination of petrography and
Authors:Andreas Iordanidis, Javier Garcia-Guinea, Aggeliki Strati, Amalia Gkimourtzina, and Androniki Papoulidou
The chemical, mineralogical and structural characterisation of historic mortars can shed light to the provenance of raw materials and the technological practice, but can also help in the restoration and
Authors:B. Pacewska, M. Nowacka, I. Wilińska, W. Kubissa, and V. Antonovich
compressive strength of cement mortars was also examined.
This article is a continuation of our previously published studies [ 20 ] on cement pastes with described waste catalyst.
Authors:W. Nocuń-Wczelik, A. Bochenek, and M. Migdał
curves on heating.
The standard cement pastes, mortars and concretes show generally less or more visible shrinkage on setting and hardening because the volume of formed hydrated phases is less than the volume of initial components. However, in
Authors:S. Felder-Casagrande, H. Wiedemann, and A. Reller
The calcination of limestone is one of the oldest technical processes and it is still of actual interest. Very early calcitic
mortars from Turkey have been investigated and compared with materials of other early civilisations i.e. with Egyptian mortars
containing gypsum as well as medieval dolomite-based mortars from alpine regions. Contemporary calcination procedures, in
particular the cement production, range among the most important global industrial processes causing non neglectable environmental
problems. Sustainable, solar energy assisted calcination technologies and the conversion of product CO2 into useful commodities are discussed.
Faraday induced the mechanochemical reduction of AgCl with Zn, Sn, Fe and Cu in 1820, using trituration in a mortar. This
experiment is revisited, employing a mortar-and-pestle and a ball mill as mechanochemical reactors. The reaction kinetics
depends both on the thermochemical properties and the hardness of the reactants. When using Zn as the reducing agent, Faraday
likely observed a mechanically induced self-sustaining process (MSR), or at least he came very close to doing so.
Authors:K. Vessalas, P. Thomas, A. Ray, J. Guerbois, P. Joyce, and J. Haggman
Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis was applied to the characterisation of the pozzolanic reaction in mortars containing the supplementary
cementitious materials (SCMs) pitchstone fines (PF) and fly ash (FA) as partial replacements for Portland cement (PC). TG
analysis was used to determine the proportion of calcium hydroxide (CH) present from the hydration of the PC based on the
dehydroxylation of the CH present in the blended PC-SCM mortars. The consumption of CH indicated that both SCMs underwent
the pozzolanic reaction and that PF was found to compare favourably in its pozzolanic reactivity of FA, the industry and globally
accepted standard artificial pozzolan.
Authors:A. Skaropoulou, G. Kakali, and S. Tsivilis
form of sulphate attack (TSA) concerns cements and concretes containing limestone
and is attributed to the formation of thaumasite. This work deals with the
confirmation of thaumasite formation in cement mortars. Three types of cement
were examined: Portland cement and Portland limestone cement containing 15
and 30% mass/mass limestone. The specimens were cured at 5C, for 12 months,
in a 1.8% MgSO4 solution. The formation of thaumasite
was checked and confirmed by XRD, TG and SEM. It was concluded that mortars
containing limestone suffer from TSA at low temperature. The combination of
XRD, TG and SEM leads to the positive identification of thaumasite and resolves
the well known problem of thaumasite and ettringite confusion.