A project has been undertaken to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. Samples
of different species of lichens were collected in clean areas (native forest), analyzed and transplanted to the Santiago Metropolitan
Area. In addition, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area for comparison purposes. The preparation of the samples was done under controlled,
cryogenic conditions and analyzed by neutron activation analysis and solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry. As part
of the routine QA/QC procedures, the analytical laboratories, have participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA
for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. The present paper describes the activities carried
out within the framework of this project.
Authors:M. Vargha, Z. Somlai, Z. Takáts, and K. Márialigeti
Atrazine is a frequently detected pollutant in agricultural soils, groundwater and surface waters. Microbial degradation was confirmed in soils, and recently several atrazine-degrading bacteria have been isolated. Degradation in aquifers, however, is not well understood, and to date, atrazine degraders have not been isolated from water. In the present study, the impact of atrazine was assessed in agricultural soil and river sediment and the composition of the atrazine-degrading bacterial community in the soil and sediment was compared. Atrazine pollution increased the number and diversity of the endogenous atrazine degraders in both environments. Proteobacteria were predominant atrazine degraders in soils, whereas the community of atrazine-degrading bacteria in sediment consisted mostly of coryneforms.
Forty elements in 21 coastal marine sediment samples collected duringthe second Antarctic scientific expedition from 18 different sites of Brekilenarea located at the coast of Antarctica were analysed by instrumental neutronactivation analysis (INAA) to detect eventual pollution. Radio-assay schemesfor three sets of elements after neutron irradiation and cooling were evolvedto avoid matrix effects. Data have been compared with those for sedimentsof various stations at Antarctica and two other regions in different continents.Lower concentration of certain elements in the Antarctic sediments reflectsless environmental exposition. Enrichment factors (EF) were calculated forall the elements using the earth crust as reference matrix, based on elementalvalues by MASON, TAYLOR and WEDEPOHL which show a normal pattern near to unityexcept for Ag and Br. The data obtained could also serve as a reference pointfrom which changes in the global environment can be studied. The quality assuranceof data was performed using standard reference materials (SRMs) of a similarmatrix (IAEA Marine Sediment SD-M/TM and Chinese Marine Sediment GBW 07313).
Authors:Felix Chan, Dora Marinova, and Michael McAleer
The paper analyses the asymmetric volatility of patents related to pollution prevention and abatement (hereafter, anti-pollution) technologies registered in the USA. Ecological and pollution prevention technology patents have increased steadily over time, with the 1990's having been a period of intensive patenting of technologies related to the environment. The time-varying nature of the volatility of anti-pollution technology patents registered in the USA is examined using monthly data from the US Patent and Trademark Office for the period January 1975 to December 1999. Alternative symmetric and asymmetric volatility models, such as GARCH, GJR and EGARCH, are estimated and tested against each other using full sample and rolling windows estimation.
Application of Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis for environmental pollution control is described. The paper gives
details of both sampling and measurement procedures for air particulates and plant samples. Usability of the method is shown
on some examples typical in for environment protection practice. For instance with simultaneous sampling of air in more than
one place, one can identify the polluting source and determine the contribution of this source to the total level of local
pollution as well. It is possible with the EDXRF to investigate short and long-term concentration variations of metals in
air including the distance factor too. Analysis of plant samples was performed in order to evaluate the contribution of automotive
traffic to environmental pollution in areas of national parks. Examples of application of the method described in the paper
give evidence in favour of the EDXRF as a good tool for investigation of environmental pollution.
Authors:L. Vasiliu-Oromulu, G. Jenser, and D. Bărbuceanu
The LIFE 02ENV/RO/000461AIR-AWARE project is partly dedicated to research on the flora and invertebrate fauna of downtown Bucharest (Romania). In this area, products of local industrial pollution, heavy metals, SO
and powders in suspension exceed standard levels. The pilot zone is represented by two public parks in downtown Bucharest. Thysanopterological samples were collected from the herbaceous layer, on both weeds and ornamentals, following a transect approach. The preliminary results revealed a biodiversity that decreased from the park centres, which suffered the least air pollution, towards the edges of the parks, which were the most polluted. The dominant species was
, which had high values for structural and functional indices, as well as morphological changes in body size, colour and antennae, all due to the air pollution.
could be considered to be a very sensitive bioindicator of environmental pollution. Future analysis, however, may reveal whether
Bagnalliella yuccae, F. intonsa
are more sensitive bioindicators for air pollution.
Authors:Jun Yuan, Wei Yue, Cheng Su, Zheng Wu, Zheng Ma, Yun Pan, Nan Ma, Zhi Hu, Fei Shi, Zheng Yu, and Yi Wu
This research intends to investigate the patent activity on water pollution and treatment in China (1985–2007), and then compares
the results with patents data about Triadic patents, South Korea, Brazil and India over the same periods, patents data were
collected from Derwent World Patents Index between 1985 and May 2008. For this study, 169,312 patents were chosen and examined.
Total volume of patents, technology focus, assignee sector, priority date and the comparison with other countries are analyzed.
It is found that patents on water pollution and treatment filed at China have experienced a remarkable increase and the increase
rate of patents filed at China change simultaneous with the percentage of domestic applications. However, the number of high
quality Triadic patents with priority country as China remains small. Furthermore, in addition to individual patent assignees,
both Chinese universities and enterprises also play important roles in patent activity of water pollution and treatment. In
addition, the pattern of South Korea’s development can provide short-term implications for China and the regularity in Triadic
patents’ development can provide some guidance to China’s long-term development. In contrast, the development pattern of Brazil
and India is less influential to China’s development. Furthermore, China’s technology focuses on water pollution and treatment
seem to parallel global and triadic patent trends. This research provides a comprehensive picture of China’s innovation capability
in the area of water pollution and treatment. It will help China’s local governments to improve their regional S&T capability
and will provide support the National Water Pollution Control and Treatment Project in China.
Authors:N. Kalogeropoulos, V. Kilikoglou, M. Vassilaki-Grimani, and A. Grimanis
Thirty elements were determined by two INAA methods in sediment core samples from N. Saronikos Gulf, Greece, and the results were subjected to multivariate analysis. This procedure resulted in the separation of samples into chemical groups that were environmentally meaningful and sufficient to (a) distinguish among different pollution sources; (b) trace the routes and the extent of pollution in sediments; and (c) define the least affected areas representing the geochemical background. The principal components analysis of the analytical data for 18 selected elements revealed that, among the elements determined in this study, the most discriminating were As, Sb, Ag, Ca, Au, Zn and the rare earth elements (REE).
Authors:A. Abdel-Halim, E. Metwally, and M. El-Dessouky
Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed.