Prior to treatment, letters dating from 1665–66 were characterised using SEM, FTIR, ESCA or XPS, TG, TMA and DLTMA. All three
papers were similar in composition and were basically cellulosic materials. Two which had been sent from Lisbon contained
trace amounts of Fe and Cu; these impurities were also present in a letter sent from Dublin. All three letters had been written
with iron gall ink. The letter from Dublin had an additional feature in the ink in the form of small bright specks of mica.
The papers were examined after conservation treatment using the above same techniques in an attempt both to determine and
quantify any changes which had occurred during the treatment process. Scanning electron micrographs showed that propounced
changes had occurred to the surfaces of the treated papers. With XPS it was possible to measure the change in the surface
composition of the papers which occurred on treatment. It was also found that the treatment reduced the thermal stability
of the papers in all three cases.
A choroidearedők a szemfenéki vizsgálat során világos és sötét vonalakként megjelenő párhuzamos csíkokként ismerhetők fel. A diagnózis megállapítását az optikai koherencia tomográfia, a vörösmentes szemfenéki fotó, az autofluoreszcencia, valamint a fluoreszcein-angiográfia segítheti. A szerzők 70 éves férfi betegük esetét ismertetik, akit 1 hónapja fennálló jobb oldali látáspanasz miatt vizsgáltak. Pupillatágítást követő fundusvizsgálaton mindkét oldalon choroidearedőket észleltek. A choroidearedők a beteg látóélességét nem befolyásolták. Neurológiai kivizsgálás során nem találtak kóros neurológiai eltérést. A beteget 6 hónapig követték, ez idő alatt változás nem következett be. A szerzők kiemelik, hogy a choroidearedők gyakran nem kerülnek felfedezése, mert legtöbbször tünetmentesek. Etiológiájában számos ok felmerülhet, ezért az idiopathiás choroidearedő diagnózisa egyéb patológiás eltérések kizárásán alapul. A követés során a látóélesség és a szemfenéki kép ellenőrzése szükséges. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(27), 1083–1086.
The ceiling sketch painted in bright colours in a punctiliously detailed manner against a rich architectural background has been associated with Josef Adam Mölk by researches of recent years. After studies at the Vienna Academy, and some 15 years' work in Bavaria and Tyrol, the painter took on executing frescoes and altarpieces in Styria from 1764, and worked in Lower Austria for the last twelve years of his life. During his long and prolific life he executed his designs with the help of his workshop associates.
During his years in Styria there was a single occasion when he worked outside the province: in the monastic church of pilgrimage at Maria Langegg in Lower Austria in 1773. He signed a contract to paint the ceiling frescoes and altarpieces for the Servite church of the Birth of Mary in December 1772. From among the scenes of the life of Mary, her birth is seen in the presbytery; the mentioned oil sketch for this cupola fresco is kept at the Hungarian National Gallery. Mölk's fresco painting was fundamentally influenced by the Italian architect and painter Andrea Pozzo's pseudo cupola painting and artistic theory, which is also confirmed by this sketch. Its “protagonist” is the spectacular architecture. Minutely decorated, diverse architectonic elements, daringly foreshortened domes characterize the major works of this period in the churches of Rein (1766), Weizberg (1771), Pernegg (1775), the latter also containing a somewhat simplified version of the Birth of Mary composition of Maria Langegg.
Mölk's only known work in Hungary is the Assumption ceiling fresco in the chancel of the Benedictine church of Zalaapáti from 1781. It is presumed that Martin Johann Schmidt who painted the altarpiece for the church contacted Mölk for the commission.
An early piece by the painter is kept at the Hungarian National Museum. It is probably in connection with his appointment as court painter. The historical allegory dated 1755 is a fine example of Mölk's minutely elaborated and detailed painting style.
György (Đuro) Arnold (1781-1848) the composer, teacher, conductor, lexicographer and founder of the first music school in Subotica, was the regens chori of the Subotica's Sv. Terezija church (1800-48). He was a prolific composer, writing in a variety of genres, from compositions for the church of Sv. Terezija, choral and chamber works to operas, melodramas, songs, overtures, and verbunkos (the complete list of his works is included in the appendix). Arnold's style was influenced by Viennese Classical church music and the emerging Hungarian national style. In his early sacred pieces, he used quotations from popular operas, but in later compositions he was closer to Haydn, and the Te Deum Solenne dedicated to the Zagreb Bishop Aleksandar Alagović shows possible influence of early Beethoven. In many aspects, Arnold was a composer on the periphery. He liked large ensembles which could impress audiences with the brightness of the orchestral sound altough, as far as we know, he never attempted to build a large symphonic form which would match the richness of such a sound. He ususally set the text in short sentences, quickly exhausting its possibilities, undermining the expectations raised by the large-scale gradations which open his compositions. In 1819, Arnold published Pismenik, a collections of texts (without tunes) of Croatian Roman Catholic hymns collected in Bačka (western Vojvodina); the preface to Pismenik and its complete table of contents are reprinted in an appendix. In 1839-40, he completed the hymnal Valóságos egyházi kántori fontos énekeskönyv with 186 church compositions intended for Hungarian and Transylvanian chuch musicians, which remained unpublished. In 1826, Arnold began working on the Historisch-musikalisch bibliographisches Tonkünstler Lexikon, which expanded to four manuscript volumes in length, but remained unpublished and seems to be lost today.
The Psalter (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Cod. Guelf. 39 Aug. 4º) of Beatrice of Aragon, the wife of King Matthias Corvinus, often features in research literature on account of its title-page and ornate binding. The title-page (fol. 13r) was long attributed to Francesco del Cherico, but for some time now it has been ascribed to Francesco Rosselli and his collaborator, the Maestro dell'Iliade Medicea, while the binding is attributed – after Anthony Hobson – to Felice Feliciano. There are written documents to prove that both Francesco Rosselli and Felice Feliciano visited Hungary, both in the late 1470s, in1480 the latest. That Rosselli painted the Psalter title-page in Buda cannot be proven, although the arguments proposed by Edina Zsupán – the Hungarian saints in the calendar, the crudeness of the parchment – may suggest it. However, not only the title-page but six other pages of the Psalm-book are illumined (foll. 43r, 59v, 76v, 94r, 115v, 135v, 155v). These pages so far ignored by research literature are not Francesco Rosselli's works, being in completely different style. Their illuminator was presumably one of the North Italian masters who illumined for Hungarian clients several manuscripts in Buda around1480 and later, among whom only one is known by name(Franciscus Kastello Ithallico de Mediolano). He used cold, bright colours, the faces of the figures are markedly modelled, the drapery has a metallic hardness. One of the ruling motifs of the marginal decoration is the cornucopia. This hand cannot be identified at present in any manuscript whose provenience was Buda; its closest relative is a single Italian illumination in the Corvinus Gradual(National Széchényi Library, Cod. Lat. 424, fol. 7r). The master of the ornate binding of the Psalter – as Marianne Rozsondai has established – was the binder of the 14th century Bible kept in Erlangen (Universitätsbibliothek, Ms. 6) which also features of portrait of King Matthias. Important roles are played on both bindings by the leather filigree arabesques and the embossed all'antica motifs. The hand of the master making the gilded Corvina bindings can also be discerned on the Bible binding. So it seems that these two luxurious manuscripts completed around 1480 had an important – maybe even model-giving – role in the history of the evolving royal library, the Bibliotheca Corvina.
Information on the life of Saint Lazarus was collected by the scribe who continued the Chronicle of Theophanes. It was also elaborated by Kedrenos. He was born in Armenia and came to byzantium at a young age to become a painter and monk. In 832 Theophilus order the destruction of icons. To persuade Lazarus, he summoned him. The tortures of the painter were put an end to by Empress Theodora. In gratitude to her, he painted an icon of St John the Baptist which worked miracles after Theophilus' death, and then he painted a large icon of Christ. Emperor of Byzantium Michael III sent him to Rome in 856 to the newly elected Pope Benedict III to discuss the possibility of reconciliation between the two churches and restore unity. An uncertain source mentions his death during another mission to Rome in 867. He is allegedly buried in Galata in the monastery of Evanderes. His cult in the Roman church was actualized by the “iconoclasm” of the Protestants. The council of Trent – similarly to the second Council of Nicea earlier – decided in favour of the veneration of icons.
The finest specimens of St Lazarus's iconography were produced by the noted copperplate engraving workshops of Augsburg. The illustration dating from 1753 of the Life of Saints by Joseph Giulini was popular all over Europe. In the engraving by Christian Halbauer made after Johann Wolfgang Baumgartner of the episode of Lazarus' arrest Christ on the cross can also be seen. The most important depiction shows the sainted monastic painter in a baroque atelier, working on his painting of St John the Baptist in the monastery of Phoberon. The hagiographic series of Annus dierum Sanctorum was sold in a volume already in the age of its creation, between 1737 and 1742. The indispensable series for the research of baroque iconography was the outcome of the joint endeavour of Gottfried Bernard Göz, Joseph Sebastian and Johann Baptist Klauber in Augsburg. Among the historicizing painters of the 19th century, Domenico Morelli depicted the four monks persecuted by Emperor Theophilus in bright colours in 1855, with the icon of St John the Baptism hanging behind the four condemned monks.