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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: D. Robertson, V. Thomas, H. Rieck, D. Haggard, W. Reece, J. Pappin, W. Hensley, D. Brown, C. Thomas, and P. Robinson

Abstract  

Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories has recently developed, tested and field-demonstrated a technology for the direct assay of transuranic radionuclides (TRU), fission products, and activation products in a variety of radwaste packages generated at commercial nuclear power plants. This technology involves non-destructive passive neutron counting for determination of nanocurie/gram quantities of the TRU radionuclides. Direct gamma spectrometry combined with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) and correlation analysis is also utilized to determine the concentrations of the fission and activation products present in the radwaste packages. Employing counting times of 10 to 20 minutes, a complete analysis of all radionuclides specified for assay by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (in 10CFR61) prior to shallow-land disposal of commercial radwastes can be measured at concentrations at least tenfold below the least restrictive Class A waste catagory.

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Eight malting barley cultivars were used to investigate the cultivar and environmental effects on grain protein components and the relationships between protein fractions and β -amylase or β -glucanase activity. The results showed there was a great variation for three protein fraction (albumin, hordein and glutelin) contents over cultivars and locations, and a distinct difference in each protein fraction content between the locations for a given cultivars. Correlation analysis indicated that β -amylase activity was significantly correlated with three protein fraction contents and there was a negative correlation between glutelin content and β -amylase activity, but β -amylase activity positively correlated with albumin or hordein content. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between total protein content and β -glucanase activity, and we found the hordein and glutelin content did not show correlated with β -glucanase activity but the albumin content was a significantly negative correlation with β -glucanase activity.

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β-Glucan content and β-glucanase activity of winter and spring barley cultivars grown under different environments were evaluated. There were significant differences in both β-glucan content and β-glucanase activity between analysed barleys. The results showed that, for all cultivars and locations, approximately 75% of β-glucan present in grains was degraded after malting, and that marked differences existed among winter and spring type of cultivars in malt β-glucan content. The correlation analysis of β-glucan content and malt quality parameters showed that malt β-glucan content was significantly positively correlated with viscosity and extract difference, and negatively with malt β-glucanase activity and friability. Regarding malt β-glucanase activity, significantly higher activity was found in spring cultivars in contrast to winter cultivars.

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Present research on prebiotics focuses on either polysaccharides or polyphenols. This study compared the individual and combined impact of polysaccharide, quercetin, and gallic acid (GA) treatment on three human faecal strains. In vitro pure culturing and correlation analysis confirmed that the growth of both beneficial microbe B. longum subsp. longum (0.695, 0.205: R2, slope, respectively) and pathogenic C. perfringens (0.712, 0.085: R2, slope, respectively) increased due to polysaccharide treatment, and only GA treatment would inhibit C. perfringens (0.789, –0.165: R2, slope, respectively) growth. In vivo studies also revealed that genome copies of Bifidobacterium increased and C. perfringens decreased in the faeces, when a blend of the three nutrients rather than single polysaccharide or polyphenols were fed to rats. These data suggested that combined prebiotic treatment improved human faecal strain composition better than single treatment.

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Abstract  

An intellectual property (IP)-centric, communication-based Innovation Agenda is proposed and investigated. The agenda, which is aligned with IP legal prescription, is defined as follows: the firm’s R&D expenditure is captured within products. The firm applies for a patent and files a trademark to protect its interests in the ‘patentable’ product, and issues a media communication, which may alter the perception of future cash flows, and thereby market price. Upon patent issuance and trademark registration, the firm will then seek another media communication. Spearman (partial) correlation analysis shows strong correlation among the various proxy metrics suggesting that the model basis may exist. The model proposes a novel link among national socioeconomic metrics, corporate strategy, and the technology based innovative firm. Finally, the model supports the inclusion of trademark and media communications data to be considered in socioeconomic modeling.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study is to reveal the possible linkage among the 40 primary organizations in Genetic Engineering Research by taking the Patent Coupling approach. The primary organizations were defined by the productivity and identified by the patent count and Bradford Law. The author analyzed the cited patents of the patents granted by United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 1991 to 2002 to the 40 primary organizations (assignees) in Genetics Engineering Research to establish the correlation. 780 coupling pairs formed by the 40 primary organizations and Coupling Index and Coupling Strength were calculated for each pair and primary organization. Correlation Analysis and Multiple-Dimension Scaling were applied further based on Coupling Index. Technological clusters were found in the results of the analyses.

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Understanding the relationship between root system and yield related traits is an important objective in crop breeding programs. Canonical correlation analysis has been adopted to study the strength of association between the root morphological traits and grain yield components under low-moisture stress and well-watered conditions and to find the root morphological characters that have the largest influence on grain yield and its components under the two conditions. This study revealed that root to shoot length and weight ratios and root dry weight were had the largest effect on plant height, shoot dry weight and grain yield under well-watered condition. Under low moisture stress, maximum root length and root number were also important for improving grain yield and panicle length. The interrelationships clearly identified the importance of root to shoot length and weight ratios and root dry weight under well-watered condition. While, maximum root length and root number are a better combination under low moisture stress condition.

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The number of stomata and the concentration of macro- and microelements in four new winter wheat genotypes: Lenta, Lara, Perla and Fiesta were investigated in two localities in Croatia in the 1997/98 growing season. The stomata number per mm2 was determined by a standard method. N was established by the micro-Kjeldahl method, P spectrophotometrically and K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn by the AAS method. The interrelation of the investigated parameters was determined by multiple regression and correlation analysis. The results obtained indicate that the number of stomata per mm2 and the macro- and microelement concentrations depended on the genotype, the phenophase and the locality. A statistically significant correlation was found between the stomata number per mm2 and the macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and microelement (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn) concentrations.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study is to contribute to the debate on the relationship between scientific mobility and international collaboration. This case study deals with leading Chinese researchers in the field of plant molecular life sciences who returned to their home country. A correlation analysis of their mobility history, publication output, and international co-publication data, shows the relationship between scientific output, levels of international collaboration and various individual characteristics of returned researchers. The outcome of the analysis suggests that while host countries may loose human capital when Chinese scientists return home, the so-called “return brain drain”, they may also gain in terms of scientific linkages within this rapidly emerging and globalizing research field.

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Community Ecology
Authors: S. Popov, M. Miličić, I. Diti, O. Marko, D. Sommaggio, Z. Markov, and A. Vujić

Spatial and temporal differences in landscape patterns are of considerable interest for understanding ecological processes. In this study, we assessed habitat quality by using the Syrph The Net database and data on decreasing species richness over a 25-year period for the two largest phytophagous hoverfly genera (Merodon and Cheilosia). Furthermore, within this time frame, we explored congruence between ecological responses (species richness and Biodiversity Maintenance Function for these two genera) and landscape structural changes through correlation analysis. Our results indicate that landscapes have experienced changes in aggregation, isolation/connectivity and landscape diversity, with these parameters being significantly correlated with Cheilosia species richness loss and habitat quality. We conclude that the genus Cheilosia is a good bioindicator that can highlight not only the current quality of an area but also temporal changes in landscape patterns.

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