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Grain protein content (GPC) in durum wheat is a crucial determinant of pasta quality and as such is an important economic factor. This study was carried out to determine the microsatellite markers (SSRs) as associated with GPC in durum wheat grown under normal and moisture stress conditions. F3 and F4 population derived from 151 F2 individuals developed from a cross between Oste-Gata (drought tolerant) and Massara-1 (drought susceptible) genotypes, were used. The population was evaluated under four environmental conditions (two irrigation regimes in two growing seasons). The results of single marker regression analysis (SMA) revealed that 2, 4 and 10 markers to be associated with GPC, test weight (TW) and 1000 grain weight (TGW), respectively. These markers explained between 4.4 and 21.8% of the phenotypic variation in either environmental condition. The most significant marker observed for GPC was located on 5B chromosome near Xgwm408 under normal conditions and the other marker was observed on 1A, explaining about 15% of phenotypic variance. However, it was not recognized any marker related to GPC under drought stress conditions. Xgwm408 marker was coincident with the markers identified for TW, TGW and components of grain yield under drought stress conditions. In spite of 5B, the other chromosomes such as 2B and 3B were related to quantitative traits like TW and TGW. Composite interval mapping (CIM) identified 4 and 5 putative minor and major QTL for TW and TGW, respectively. Two QTL near Xbarc101 and Xbarc124 markers on 3B and 2B chromosome, explained up to 45.2 and 6% of phenotypic variations of TGW and TW, respectively.

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45 Ballesteros, J., Garcia-Llamas, C., Ramirez, M. C., Martin, A. (2003): Low relative humidity increases haploid production in durum wheat × maize crosses. Plant Breed. , 122

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: G. Aureli, T. Amoriello, A. Belocchi, M.G. D’Egidio, M. Fornara, S. Melloni, and F. Quaranta

This study was carried out to determine the co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the sum of T2 and HT2 toxins in durum wheat samples belonging to eight cultivars grown in a national network experimental trials over a three-year period (2011–2013). The effect of several factors (cultivar, year and cultivation area) affecting the occurrence of the two types of mycotoxins and their relationship with several agronomic and grain quality parameters were assayed by statistical analysis (GLZ). The results highlighted the different trend of incidence and contamination rate of the two types of mycotoxins in relation to the cropping year and to the growing examined areas. Year and its interaction with the cultivation area was the most important factor affecting the DON contamination, whereas genotype and its interaction with the year mainly influenced T2+HT2 toxins contamination rate. DON and T2+HT2 contamination levels were not significantly correlated with each other. The evidence that the two types of mycotoxins were differently related with several agronomic and grain quality parameters could be connected to the effects of the respective fungal disease on wheat plant.

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. Boggini , G. , Palumbo , M. , Calcagno , F. 1990 . Characterization and utilization of Sicilian landraces of durum wheat in breeding programmes . In: Srivastava , J.P. , Damania , A.B. (eds), Wheat Genetic Resources: Meeting Diverse

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Araus, J.L., Amaro, T., Casadesus, J., Asbati, A., Nachit, M.M. 1998. Relationship between ash content, carbon isotope discrimination and yield in durum wheat. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 25 :835–842. Nachit M

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Zymoseptoria tritici, a globally distributed pathogen, is responsible of Septoria tritici blotch (STB), one of the most damaging wheat diseases. In Italy the incidence of STB has increased during the past few years. The presence of Z. tritici on flag leaves of susceptible durum wheat plants, cultivar San Carlo, after a single artificial inoculation with two inoculum concentrations at different vegetative stages has been evaluated in the plain of Bologna (North of Italy), in a two year field study (2012–2013). The pathogen presence was also assessed in natural infection conditions after a fungicide application in the second year (2013). The results obtained, by visual examination (Incidence, Disease Severity) and DNA quantification by Real time PCR, demonstrated that BBCH 39 (flag leaf stage) is the most susceptible vegetative stage, independently of inoculum concentration and climatic conditions. A good correlation between Disease Severity and DNA quantity was observed in either sampling methods, entire flag leaves and flag leaf discs. Thereafter the most suitable period to obtain the best crop protection with only one fungicide treatment is the flag leaf stage.

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Alvaro, F., Isidro, J., Villegas, D., Garcia del Moral, L.F., Royo, C. 2008. Breeding effects on grain filling, biomass partitioning and remobilization in Mediterranean durum wheat. Agron. J. 100 :361

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. Beleggia , R. , Platani , C. , Spano , G. , Monteleone , M. & Cattivelli , L. ( 2009 ). Metabolic profiling and analysis of volatile composition of durum wheat semolina and pasta . J. Cereal Sci. , 49 , 301 – 309

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Giorgi, B., Barbera, F., Bitti, O., Cavicchioni, G. 1984. Yield performance of F 3 progenies from a durum wheat involving two different semidwarfing genes: Rht1 and Sd mutation. In: Semi-dwarf Cereal Mutants and Their Use in Cross-breeding II

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Anonymous, 1977–1998. National Network of Durum Wheat Performance Test. L’Informatore Agrario, Special Issue 39, 40 and 35, 36 for years 1977–1979 and 1996–1998, respectively. Becker, H

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