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137 147 Zsíros T 2000: Seismicity and seismic hazard of the Carpathian Basin: Hungarian earthquake catalogue (456--1995), MTA FKK GGKI (in Hungarian), Budapest

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Reiter L 1991: Earthquake hazard analysis: issues and insights. Columbia University Press, New York Reiter L. Earthquake hazard analysis: issues and

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1 71 89 Kebeasy R M, Maamon M, Ibrahim E M 1982: Bull. International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Tsukuba , 19, 12

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, Johnston A, Patterson G, Bollwerk J, Rydelek P, Raphael A, Chiu C, Chiu J, Busdhbatti K, Gomberg J 2001: In: Int. Conf. Seismic Hazard with particular reference to Bhuj earthquake of January 26, 2001, IMD-DST, New Delhi, Abs. Vol. 103

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Idriss , I. M. ( 1982 ), Ground Motions and Soils Liquefaction during Earthquakes . Technical report , Earthquake Engineering Research Institute . [3]. C. H. Juang

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: The effects of the earthquakes to the buildings (in Hungarian). Müszaki Kiadó, Budapest The effects of the earthquakes to the buildings

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249 Pulido N 2003: In: Bulletin of the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, Special Edition, 69–76. Radu C, Polonic G 1982: The earthquake of March

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Zsíros T 2002: Earthquakes around the river Ipoly (in Hungarian). Manuscript, 1--6. Zbořil L, Konečný V, Filo M 1971: Geol. Práce, Spr ., 57, 239--264. Geol. Práce, Spr

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The paper deals with the earthquakes that took place in the Kaliningrad region (Russia) on 21 September 2004 and were felt in the territories of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belarus and Finland. Data on space and time co-ordinates and dynamic parameters of these earthquake foci available from  international centers and various seismological groups are analyzed. A degree of reliability of the results obtained is discussed.   The epicentral zone of the Kaliningrad earthquakes is found within the western part of the old East European Platform (EEP). The seismotectonic map presenting the territories of Belarus and the Baltic States was considered, and the Kaliningrad-Lithuanian potential seismogenic area was analyzed. Methods used to outline possible earthquake zones when seismic zoning of the  Belarusian-Baltic region was carried out were verified in practice and, actually, made possible a long-term forecast of earthquake origination in Kaliningrad. 

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The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies earlier than 5 days before a large (M ≥ 6) earthquake. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month) ionospheric total electron content (TEC) records collected from the Japan GEONET system to detect TEC anomalies associated with 26 earthquakes in Japan (M ≥ 6.0) from 2004 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 26 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 26 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously, PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window. In this paper, this is shown through the application of PCA to one-dimensional TEC data relating to the Kyushu earthquake of 20 March 2005 (M = 6.6). The analysis is applied to daily TEC and reveals a large principal eigenvalue (representative of an earthquake associated anomaly) for March 9, 11 days before the March 20 earthquake.

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