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deductive use of debere , the gnomic future as a reportative strategy, cum inversum as a mirative device) which may be used in historic, epic or epistolary genres, never occur in the language of Roman comedy. This allows us to conclude that the linguistic

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This paper is based on three major premises derived from philosophy of history, historical poetics, and theory of intertextuality, which are seen as interconnected. Taras Bulba and Khadzhi Murat inherit different forms of epic writing from archaic ones (e.g. epic poems) to heroic ones (e.g. sagas, bylinas, chivalric romance, etc.). Some variations and distant derivatives of these multiple forms (e.g. tales about bogatyrs, Orlando Furioso by Ariosto, Alonso Quijano by Cervantes, ballad, historical novella, etc.) are related to some extent to the given texts by Gogol and L. Tolstoy.

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The Middle Persian Deeds of Ardakhšēr Son of Pābag (Kār-nāmag i Ardakhšēr i Pābagān) contains the story of Ardakhšēr, later the founder of the Sasanian dynasty. The author of this article analysed the judicial relevant data of the epic and compared them with the Zoroastrian customs and Sasanian jurisprudence. The contradictions found led him to doubt the legitimacy of the first Sasanian king.

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The messenger speeches in some of Seneca's tragedies (the most extensive ones can be read in Agamemnon and Hercules Furens) constitute special epic details of the works. Their narrative technique, intertextual references and representation of time link them not with the dramatic literary form, but with the epic one, and Vergil's Aeneid is, beyond any doubt, their most important 'hypertextus'. The setting of the messenger reports has not been subordinated to the dramatic efficacy of the main conflict, they produce rather a generic multiplicity. The reform of closed literary forms and the generic heterogeneity are not unique phenomena in the literary life of this period; the meaning and importance of the innovation made by Seneca cannot be judged separately from the most important literary achievements of the period: Luc an's Bellum Civile and Petronius' Satyricon

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In the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus, due to the influence of Apollonius Rhodius, Jason, the main character of the epic, has several cloaks. The most important of these is the one Jason receives from Hypsipyle, when he leaves Lemnos. According to an ekphrasis in Book 2, two pictures woven on the cloak represent the rescuing of Thoas, father of Hypsipyle and the abduction of Ganymede. My paper analyses the function of the description of these representations in the Argonautica, besides, it examines the relationship between the two pictures described in the ekphrasis. It is argued that the purpose of Jason donating all his other cloaks (one from Cyzicus, one woven by his mother, and another one also given to him by Hypsipyle) is to emphasize the importance of the cloak he received from Hypsipyle and to remind the reader of her fidelity, in a further part of the epic.

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In the short epic poem Vita divi Pauli Eremitae (1522), Valentinus Ecchius paraphrased the homonym legend written by St. Jerome. The humanist poet incorporated his work in the Hungarian context by dedicating it to Alexius Thurzo, treasurer of the Kingdom, by choosing as topic the life of St. Paul the Hermit, eponymus of the genuine Hungarian monastic order Ordo S. Pauli Primi Eremitae, by adding the motiv of the translation of St. Paul’s relics and a prayer for Hungary.

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On the basis of the Mycenaean documents written in Linear B, the official title da-mo-ko-ro (*damokoros) might have been the name for a high official of the royal palace whose task was to distribute the provisions among the people working for the king. Augewas damokoros mentioned on the tablet Ta 711 may be the same historical person as king Augewas of the Greek epic tradition who rivalled Neleus in the rule over Pylos.

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In this paper, I establish a connection between the manifold character of Fama as reported by Virgil in Aen. 4. 173 ff. and her ‘manifold speech’ (multiplex sermo) in the framework of a narratological reading. According to my interpretation, the short fama of the Virgilian Fama (4. 191-194), as a spectacular example of ‘polyphonic narrative’, radicalises and thus domesticates the dangers inherent in the epic discourse itself.

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The appearances of the goddess Night in Virgil’s Aeneid can be profitably studied as a cipher to appreciating better certain key elements of the poet’s epic presentation of Troy’s fall and the rise of the future Rome. Detailed consideration of every epiphany of the goddess in the poem offers insight into Virgil’s rationale for how he presents the ultimate resolution of the conflict in Latium and the quelling of Juno’s rage against the Trojans.

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This article examines the practical function of a group of epic songs. On the basis of local folk ballads (ballade populaire), it shows that the epic songs preserve local history and recall members of the community and events of their lives. The songs in part function as a record of memory, as a means of prompting memory, and in part they serve to marginalise members of the local community. The author examined songs written for funerals which contain biographic data of the deceased person. The function of the songs is to bid farewell and preserve the memory of the deceased and popularise him or her, and to preserve the cult of the dead. In the 18th century the verses bidding farewell to the dead were part of the official church funeral and were written by the priest or cantor. From the 19th century the church rejected these farewells in verse. From then on the epic songs bidding farewell to the dead were written by lay persons. At the end of the 20th century the church banned the singing of such farewells at funerals.

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