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The research interprets the textual references of Pharsalia based on the presupposition that the epic aims to emulate and reinterpret (in an anti-Virgilian and anti-Ovidian way) Virgil’s Aeneid _

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Abstract  

The first humanist Latin epic in Hungary was written by the Transylvanian humanist of Moravian origin, Stephanus Stierxel (or Taurinus, in his latinized name). The work appeared in 1519 in Vienna, under the title Stauromachia id est Cruciatorum Servile Bellum. The present study reviews the previous interpretations of the epic, which chose as its subject the 1514 peasants' revolt, led by Gyrgy Dsza. Some of the interpretations state that the author's sympathy is expressed towards the noblemen, who fell victim to the riots; some state the opposite: the author stands on the side of the peasants. According to the author of the present study, neither of these views is well founded. He supports his opinion with genre-analysis, showing that the work is an epic-parody, based on the Homeric Batracomyomachia, translated and made widely known by Reuchlin. On the other hand he shows that the author of the epic, following the Erasmian Riccardo Bartholini, condemns both the arrogance of the aristocracy and the cruelty of the peasants: both classes help to destroy the unity of Christian Europe, opening a way to the Islamic conquerors waiting at the borders. This is the reason why the author of the epic chose Lucan's epic on the Roman civil war as his moral guide in his historic pessimism, and adapted the motives of this work according to his own poetic goals. Imitation of Lucan in such format is unprecedented in the whole European Neo-Latin literature.

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deductive use of debere , the gnomic future as a reportative strategy, cum inversum as a mirative device) which may be used in historic, epic or epistolary genres, never occur in the language of Roman comedy. This allows us to conclude that the linguistic

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This paper is based on three major premises derived from philosophy of history, historical poetics, and theory of intertextuality, which are seen as interconnected. Taras Bulba and Khadzhi Murat inherit different forms of epic writing from archaic ones (e.g. epic poems) to heroic ones (e.g. sagas, bylinas, chivalric romance, etc.). Some variations and distant derivatives of these multiple forms (e.g. tales about bogatyrs, Orlando Furioso by Ariosto, Alonso Quijano by Cervantes, ballad, historical novella, etc.) are related to some extent to the given texts by Gogol and L. Tolstoy.

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The Middle Persian Deeds of Ardakhšēr Son of Pābag (Kār-nāmag i Ardakhšēr i Pābagān) contains the story of Ardakhšēr, later the founder of the Sasanian dynasty. The author of this article analysed the judicial relevant data of the epic and compared them with the Zoroastrian customs and Sasanian jurisprudence. The contradictions found led him to doubt the legitimacy of the first Sasanian king.

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The messenger speeches in some of Seneca's tragedies (the most extensive ones can be read in Agamemnon and Hercules Furens) constitute special epic details of the works. Their narrative technique, intertextual references and representation of time link them not with the dramatic literary form, but with the epic one, and Vergil's Aeneid is, beyond any doubt, their most important 'hypertextus'. The setting of the messenger reports has not been subordinated to the dramatic efficacy of the main conflict, they produce rather a generic multiplicity. The reform of closed literary forms and the generic heterogeneity are not unique phenomena in the literary life of this period; the meaning and importance of the innovation made by Seneca cannot be judged separately from the most important literary achievements of the period: Luc an's Bellum Civile and Petronius' Satyricon

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In the Argonautica of Valerius Flaccus, due to the influence of Apollonius Rhodius, Jason, the main character of the epic, has several cloaks. The most important of these is the one Jason receives from Hypsipyle, when he leaves Lemnos. According to an ekphrasis in Book 2, two pictures woven on the cloak represent the rescuing of Thoas, father of Hypsipyle and the abduction of Ganymede. My paper analyses the function of the description of these representations in the Argonautica, besides, it examines the relationship between the two pictures described in the ekphrasis. It is argued that the purpose of Jason donating all his other cloaks (one from Cyzicus, one woven by his mother, and another one also given to him by Hypsipyle) is to emphasize the importance of the cloak he received from Hypsipyle and to remind the reader of her fidelity, in a further part of the epic.

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In the short epic poem Vita divi Pauli Eremitae (1522), Valentinus Ecchius paraphrased the homonym legend written by St. Jerome. The humanist poet incorporated his work in the Hungarian context by dedicating it to Alexius Thurzo, treasurer of the Kingdom, by choosing as topic the life of St. Paul the Hermit, eponymus of the genuine Hungarian monastic order Ordo S. Pauli Primi Eremitae, by adding the motiv of the translation of St. Paul’s relics and a prayer for Hungary.

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On the basis of the Mycenaean documents written in Linear B, the official title da-mo-ko-ro (*damokoros) might have been the name for a high official of the royal palace whose task was to distribute the provisions among the people working for the king. Augewas damokoros mentioned on the tablet Ta 711 may be the same historical person as king Augewas of the Greek epic tradition who rivalled Neleus in the rule over Pylos.

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The appearances of the goddess Night in Virgil’s Aeneid can be profitably studied as a cipher to appreciating better certain key elements of the poet’s epic presentation of Troy’s fall and the rise of the future Rome. Detailed consideration of every epiphany of the goddess in the poem offers insight into Virgil’s rationale for how he presents the ultimate resolution of the conflict in Latium and the quelling of Juno’s rage against the Trojans.

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