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Abstract

The continuous ageing of the population is a common phenomenon in the industrialized countries. According to epidemiological studies, advanced age acts as the major risk factor of the most important cardiovascular diseases. Ageing is characterized by typical physiological alterations in vascular and cardiac structure and function at both the cellular and molecular levels, which result in a progressive dysfunction of the cardiovascular system. These ageing-associated changes are themselves increasingly recognized as a “vulnerable physiological basis” on which pathophysiological disease mechanisms can become superimposed. This review focuses on the main issues of the rapidly increasing knowledge on the ageing-associated physiological changes in the cardiovascular system in apparent health. Intensive investigations in this field provide key findings that will hopefully establish effective therapies to prevent, delay or attenuate the cardiovascular diseases in the elderly.

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Humán epidemiológiai vizsgálatok, az állatkísérleti modellek azt mutatják, hogy összefüggés van a zsigeri elhízás, a cardiovascularis rizikófaktorok, a dyslipidaemia, inzulinrezisztencia és a 2-es típusú diabetes mellitus között. Az utóbbi időben a figyelem arra irányult, hogy a trigliceridek (TG) túlzott felhalmozódása a májban része a metabolikus szindrómának. Több bizonyíték azt mutatja, hogy a TG felhalmozódása a májban oki tényezőként részt vesz a máj-inzulinrezisztencia kialakulásában normális testsúlyú és mérsékelten túlsúlyos egyéneken.

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The relationship between gaming disorder and addiction requires a behavioral analysis

Commentary on: Scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal (Aarseth et al.)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Richard J. E. James and Richard J. Tunney

In their position paper, Aarseth et al. (2016) bring to light several timely issues concerning the categorization of gaming disorder as a form of addiction and as a discrete mental disorder. In our commentary, we welcome their caution toward this move and their discussion of the equivocal scientific data in its support and the potential negative consequences for gamers. We suggest that a more heterogeneous approach is required for understanding any behavioral addiction, as concepts from gambling appear to be more relevant for aspects of mobile gaming than for video games more generally. In addition to a greater need for clinical research, we argue that studying gaming at a different level of analysis than the epidemiological study is required to gain a meaningful understanding of the harm video games may or may not entail.

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Thirty-three varieties of dairy products were analysed for fat and cholesterol contents, and a high correlation (r=0.983) was found between these two compositional attributes. Cholesterol concentration was independent of processing factors such as heat-treatment of the raw material, use of starter culture, type of the starter organisms employed and whipping or flavouring of the product. The non-fat varieties of fluid, fermented and dried milks showed significantly increased cholesterol-to-fat ratios compared to the other products tested because they contained considerable amounts of small fat globules and, therefore, had a large surface area with cholesterol bound to the fat globule membranes. The results of this study may be useful when establishing dietary guidelines for the general public according to health concerns, when formulating diets for population groups with special requirements or when assessing fat and cholesterol intakes in epidemiological studies aimed at investigating the relationship between diet and health.

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During our recent four years epidemiological studies ofMaize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) populations in Hungary, when 86 virus isolates were collected and analysed, a unique nucleic acid sequence variant was found in the 3’end region of the viral genome. According to our sequence studies, which also included all available MDMV sequences from different databanks, the coat protein region of the viral genome prooved to be quite identical. However, in several cases an insertion was located in the same position of the coat protein region. In the unique sequence variant we also found a 27 nt deletion in addition to the insertion. According to the extensive sequence search this deletion is unique and have been located only in two other potyvirus coat protein regions, while never in the case of MDMV. The potential role of this deletion in the virus infectivity, replication or other biological characteristics is discussed.

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Abstract  

In this study we report on the comparison between the total selenium in serum (total Se) with that which is apparently bound to high molecular weight (>12,000 D) species, presumably proteins (bound Se). Nine hundred seventy seven (977) serum samples arising out of a population-based epidemiological study were prepared in duplicate for the determination of total Se by pipeting directly into irradiation vials; and separate duplicate aliquots were dialyzed against DI water for the determination of bound Se. All samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis via77mSe (17.4 s). A small dialyzable Se component (6%) (free Se), defined as the difference between the total Se minus the bound Se, was identified.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: Sandeep Nijhawan, Pankaj Jain, Saket Kumpawat, and Komal Kalla

Goto, A.: Cronkhite–Canada Syndrome: epidemiological study of 110 cases reported in Japan. Arch. Jpn. Chir., 1995, 64 , 3–14. Goto A

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Bevezetés: A Cryptosporidium több faja és a Giardia duodenalis két csoportja emberben leggyakrabban akut hasmenést okoznak. Ezek a paraziták rendkívül ellenálló, vastag falú (oo)cysták formájában kerülnek a környezetbe, ahol hosszú ideig megőrzik fertőzőképességüket. Célkitűzés: A fenti protozoonok hazai előfordulásának vizsgálata különböző vízforrásokban, kiegészítve a vízgyűjtő területeken található szennyezőforrások tanulmányozásával és egy epidemiológiai felméréssel. Módszer: A vizsgálatokhoz modern molekuláris és epidemiológiai módszerek széles körét használtuk. Eredmények: Magasabb (oo)cystaszámokat szennyvízbefolyások után, illetve erdei környezetben mutattunk ki. A vizsgálatok megerősítették, hogy a szarvasmarhatelepek jelentős vízszennyező források lehetnek, a vízimadarak pedig szerepet játszhatnak az (oo)cysták terjesztésében. Az epidemiológiai felmérés elgondolkodtató adatokat sorakoztatott fel az aszimptomatikus giardiosis és a vízfogyasztás összefüggéseiről. Új, olcsó, gyors és hatékony detektálási módszert fejlesztettünk ki a monitoringvizsgálatokhoz és az állapotfelmérésekhez. Következtetések: A bemutatott eredmények nagymértékben hozzájárulnak a fenti paraziták epidemiológiai jelentőségének megismeréséhez és a járványok, fertőzések elkerüléséhez Magyarországon. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154(46), 1836–1842.

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Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) provoke haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of domestic geese. Outbreaks were detected in European countries and caused economic losses for goose keepers. Domestic ducks may be infected with GHPV without any signs typical for geese. The genomic organisation of some isolates was described but the gene functions and the pathomechanisms of the virus was not precisely defined. Here we describe the genome sequence and structure of GHPV of a goose from a Hungarian goose flock showing characteristics of the haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis. The GHPV genome investigated in this study was 5252 bp long and was very similar (99% nucleotide identity) to sequences deposited in the GenBank. All the whole GHPV genomes possess the same ORFs in length, including the VP1, VP2, VP3, ORF-X, t and T tumour antigens. Amino acid changes are detected mainly in the putative ORF-X region. Data about the GHPV genome imply a conserved genomic structure among isolates from different countries. Genomic and epidemiological studies may help vaccine development efforts and identify potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV.

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Increasing use of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) live vaccines has led to a need for the differentiation of MG strains. The MG strains MK-7, MS-16, S6, FS-9 and R strains and the MG live vaccine strain F were compared by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in this study. Using RAPD, different patterns were found among the MG strains. In addition to this, we examined the differentiating potential of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) primers targeted at the crmA, crmB, crmC, gapA, mgc2 and pvpA genes encoding cytadherence-related surface proteins. These proteins may take part in the pathogenesis of MG-induced disease. Differentiation of strain F is based on the identification of restriction enzyme sites in the PCR amplicons. Using HphI enzyme, crmC PCR amplicons produced different RFLP patterns. Digestion of amplicons of gapA-specific PCR with MboI enzyme also produced distinct patterns. Differences were observed among strains R and F by digestion of mgc2 PCR amplicons with HaeIII and VspI enzymes and digestion of pvpA PCR amplicons with AccI, PvuII and ScrFI endonucleases. This method can be used for the rapid differentiation of vaccine strain from wild strains. Differentiation of MG strains is a great advantage for diagnosticians or practitioners and it is useful for epidemiological studies.

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