Authors:Tomasz Baj, Elwira Sieniawska, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk, Jarosław Widelski, Anna Kiełtyka-Dadasiewicz, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, and Kazimierz Głowniak
Essential oils obtained from Origanum species are characterized by high diversity in composition. In this work, thin-layer chromatography (TLC)—fingerprinting of Origanum species was performed for the first time and enabled the discrimination of three chemotypes (carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and terpineol/sabinyl). Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry and statistical analyses confirmed the presence of the mentioned chemotypes and deepened the characterization of the studied essential oils. TLC—bioautography showed that thymol and carvacrol are the main antioxidant compounds in Origanum sp. essential oils (EOs).
Authors:Tong Chen, Chunyou Liu, Bin Chen, and Yongchun Huang
significance and broad application prospect. At present, many researchers have studied the flavor composition of rapeseed oil. Based on the flavor fingerprint, Gas chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technology has been proved suitable for vegetable oil
Authors:Fang Wang, Mei Meng, Li Chen, Xiaoyu Wang, and Qing Sun
The newly developed high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method allowed for the differentiation of QiYi capsules from 10 batches due to their characteristic fingerprints, proving to be a well-suited method for characterization and assignment of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) preparation. The method was validated for repeatability, intra-precision, and inter-precision. The result was acceptable, with the reference of myotonin, because relative standard deviation (% RSD) was 3.9% in reproducibility test and less than 3.44% in inter- or intra-plate precisions. HPTLC fingerprinting of the extracts showed several peaks with different RF values. Eleven peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of 10 different samples with RF values ranging from 0.10 to 0.87 according to fingerprint. The similarities of 10 batches of QiYi capsules were more than 0.940; it indicated that the different batches of QiYi capsules were stable and reliable in quality.
Authors:Anna Hawrył, Mirosław Hawrył, Ryszard Świeboda, and Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos
Fourteen different Achillea species were extracted using the Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane and then methanol as solvents. The obtained dichloromethane and methanolic extracts were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain fingerprint profiles. The first chromatographic system consisted of silica gel as adsorbent, a mixture of toluene—ethyl acetate—formic acid (5:4.9:0.1, v/v) as the mobile phase and anisaldehyde as the derivatization reagent. The second adsorbent was cyano (CN) silica gel with non-aqueous (2-propanol and n-heptane [5:5, v/v], both for dichloromethane and methanolic extracts) and aqueous (methanol and water [6:4, v/v] for dichloromethane extracts and methanol and water [4:6, v/v] for methanolic extracts) mobile phases. Anisaldehyde (for dichloromethane extracts) and Naturstoff (for methanolic extracts) derivatization reagents were used. The obtained chromatograms were processed to obtain selected images using the ImageJ program. The similarity between the studied Achillea species was confirmed using the chemometric methods (principal component analysis [PCA], similarity, and distance measures).
Authors:W.-Y. Liu, M.-L. Wei, C.-Y. Wu, H.-Y. Zhu, F. Feng, and N. Xie
Patrinia scabra Bunge has long been used in clinic as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating leukemia and cancer and regulating host immune response. Despite their wide use in China, no report on system analysis on their chemical constituents is available so far. The current study was designed to profile the fingerprint of ethyl acetate extract of it, and in addition, to characterize the major fingerprint peaks and determine their quantity. Therefore, a detailed gradient high-performance liquid chromatography was described to separate more than 30 compounds with satisfactory resolution in P. scabra Bunge. Based on the chromatograms of 10 batches samples, a typical high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint was established with 23 chromatographic peaks being assigned as common fingerprint peaks. Furthermore, a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) was coupled for the characterization of major compound. As (+)-nortrachelogenin was the most predominant compound in P. scabra Bunge, the quantification on it was also carried out with the method being validated. As a result, (+)-nortrachelogenin was found to be from 1.33 to 2.21 mg g−1 in this plant material. This rapid and effective analytical method could be employed for quality assessment of P. scabra Bunge, as well as pharmaceutical products containing this herbal material.
Species from the Ternstroemiaceae family are commonly used in Mexican traditional medicine prepared as infusion or decoction. In the present study, aqueous extracts obtained from the flowers, fruits, and seeds of Ternstroemia genera and fruits of two species of Cleyera genera were evaluated for flavonoid presence by planar chromatography using NP-PEG reagent, standards (kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin), and subsequent plate analysis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-generating system, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear inflammation model in mice. The thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprint analysis of extracts evidenced that all samples evaluated contain flavonoids; intensity of the spots were slightly higher in extracts obtained by infusion. VideoScan software analysis of the derivatized TLC plate showed the presence of quercetin on the majority of samples; this was not the case for rutin and kaempferol, which appeared in few samples. All extracts evaluated exhibited antioxidant activity; the most active were those obtained from plants of the Cleyera genus with an effective concentration (EC50) = 1 and 12 ppm for C. integrifolia and C. theaeoides, respectively. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the aqueous extracts from T. tepezapote, C. integrifolia, and C. theaeoides at a 1 mg per ear dosage showed a similar response to 0.1 mg per ear of indomethacin. Samples activity increased when heat was involved in the preparation of the extract. Presence of flavonoids after planar chromatography analysis suggests that these constituents are partially responsible for the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the active extracts. The purpose of this study was to recognize the presence of flavonoids by means of TLC and VideoScan analyses, which are both quick and reliable methods that serve also to verify differences between the samples.
Authors:M.A. Hawrył, M. Niemiec, K. Słomka, M. Waksmundzka-Hajnos, and G. Szymczak
Micro-thin-layer chromatography in two dimensional (2D-mTLC) mode in normal and reversed phase systems by use of diol bonded stationary phase was applied to make fingerprints of 11 species of Mentha genus and two finished pharmaceutical products.
Nonaqueous eluents (propan-2-ol or ethyl acetate dissolved in n-heptane) were used in normal phase systems. Mixtures of acetonitrile with water were used in reversed phase chromatographic systems.
Optimization of one dimensional systems was performed by determining of RF vs. composition of mobile phases dependencies for standards occurring in various species of Mentha. Most selective eluents were chosen to optimize two-dimensional systems by creating RF in normal-phase (NP) systems vs. RF in reversed-phase (RP) systems correlations.
2D-mTLC on diol polar bonded stationary phase were optimized to separate phenolic compounds and make fingerprints of examined plant materials and this method was never applied earlier in the chromatographic analysis.
A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the analysis of the protostemonine from Stemona sessilifolia (Miq.) Miq. has been developed and validated. According to the HPTLC fingerprint, 12 common peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities among 10 batches of samples with RF values ranging from 0.02 to 0.95. Ten different batches of samples were stable and reliable in quality, all the similarities of which are more than 0.98. The results indicated that this method was sensitive and precise for the quality evaluation of S. sessilifolia samples.