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Nineteen landrace populations of Turkish cultivated emmer wheat [Triticum turgidum L. ssp. dicoccon (Schrank) Thell.] were characterized in terms of three isoenzyme [Endopeptidase-1, Aminopeptidase-1 and Aminopeptidase-2] systems, by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis. For overall loci, the mean number of alleles and effective alleles were observed as 2.00 and 1.37, respectively. The mean value of gene diversity and average gene diversity, in overall loci, were detected as 0.23 and 0.07, respectively. Actual genetic differentiation and gene flow between different populations were calculated as 0.19 and 0.11, respectively. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that eco-geographical variables have significant effects on isoenzyme genetic diversity. Landraces that have desirable agronomical and immunological resistance traits that makes them adaptable to climate change and different eco-geographical conditions are important genetic resources to utilise for the improvement of future crops of modern wheat varieties. There is a need to assess the genetic structure and genetic composition of important agronomical characters and to determine the magnitude of the genetic diversity currently conserved in the germplasm of landraces, both in farm fields and in ex situ collections and finally, strategies for the effective use of landraces, particularly of emmer wheat, should be planned and implemented in Turkey were discussed.

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The objective of this study is the analysis of polymorphism in seed endosperm proteins (gliadins and glutenins) of Turkish cultivated einkorn wheat [Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum] landraces. The genetic diversity of high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the gliadin proteins in 10 landrace populations of cultivated einkorn wheat, originating from Turkey, was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ammonium lactic acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), respectively. For glutenins, the mean number of alleles, the mean number of effective alleles, the mean value of genetic diversity and the mean value of average genetic diversity were detected as 3.50, 2.98, 0.65 and 0.28, respectively. The genetic differentiation was 0.57, while gene flow was 0.19 between populations. For gliadins, the mean number of alleles, the mean number of effective alleles, the mean value of total genetic diversity and the genetic diversity within population were detected as 2.00, 1.21, 0.17 and 0.15, respectively. The genetic differentiation was 0.08, whereas gene flow was 6.15 between populations. STRUCTURE is a software package program for population genetic analysis, was used to infer population structures of landraces populations. The optimum value for K was obtained as 10. Considering the high number of proteins and genetic variation, and increased interest in organic products, the farming of einkorn wheat should be supported and conservation of germplasm in landraces should be maintained as important genetic resources. The landraces germplasm should be conserved for future crop improvement processes.

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Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important disease of wheat causing significant yield and quality losses globally. Breeding for host plant resistance is an economic approach to FHB control and management. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of resistance from newly developed recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat. A total of 778 RILs were developed through a bi-parental mating design followed by continuous selfing and selection. The RILs along with their eight parental lines (Baviaans, Buffels, Duzi, #910, #936, #937, #942 and #1036) and FHB resistant check cultivar ‘Sumai 3’ and susceptible check ‘SST 806’ were field evaluated across four environments in South Africa. Fusarium graminearum isolates were artificially inoculated to initiate infection and disease development. The percentage of wheat spikes showing FHB symptoms were scored. The research identified six percent of the RILs with disease resistance. Heritability for FHB resistance was the highest (64%) indicating the possibility of achieving higher selection gains for FHB resistance across the selected environments. The following five RILs were identified as potential sources of resistance: 681 (Buffels/1036-71), 134 (Duzi/910-8), 22 (Baviaans/910-22), 717 (Baviaans/937-8) and 133 (Duzi/910-7) with mean FHB scores of 6.8%, 7.8%, 9.5%, 9.8% and 10%, respectively. The selected lines expressed comparatively similar levels of resistance compared with that of Sumai 3. The identified RILs are useful genetic resources for resistance breeding against FHB disease of wheat. Since the presence of the F. graminearum is associated with deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation, the DON levels amongst the selected lines should be determined to ensure the release of improved wheat cultivars with reduced levels of DON accumulation.

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Wheat continues to be one of the most cultivated cereals in the world, and also in Romania. Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina reduces the wheat yield and grains quality worldwide. In the context of climate change, leaf rust has become a more important problem for both wheat growers and breeders in our country. Use of genetic resources, carrying rust resistance genes, play an important role in breeding programs leading to resistant varieties, which can have positive impact on environment and economy. Therefore, the identification of resistance genes in modern wheat cultivars and breeding lines, and then selection of the best resistance genes combination(s) are the first steps for a successful breeding program. At present, one of the best known and studied adult plant leaf rust resistance gene is Lr34 that contributes significantly to durable leaf rust resistance. The functional markers that enable early detection of this gene are a major advantage in the wheat breeding.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the slow rusting resistance gene Lr34 in Romanian wheat germplasm, using cssfr4 and cssfr5 molecular markers. Screening of 47 winter bread wheat cultivars and 47 breeding lines with these markers showed the presence of the Lr34 resistant haplotype in 62% (homozygous genotypes) of the total genotypes. A high frequency (79%) of Lr34 resistance allele was found among 47 breeding lines, suggesting that maintenance of a high frequency of this allele represents a real advantage for the development of adult plant resistance in Romanian breeding programs.

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unused lands: history and modernity ". Astana. Kazakh Agronomy University named after S. Seifullin, 288 p. (In Russian). Martynov, S. P., Dobrotvorskaya, T. V. (2000): A study in wheat using the Genetic Resources

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. Hufty, M. (1998): The International Regime of Genetic Resources: An Analysis of North-South Issues . Paper Presented at the 2nd International Conference of the European Society for Ecological Economics, March 4-7, Geneva

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Donini, P., Law, J.R., Koebner, R.M.D., Reeves, J.C., Cooke, R.J. 2005. The impact of breeding on genetic diversity and erosion in bread wheat. Plant Genetic Resources Characterization and Utilization 3 :391

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Poliakov, A. V., Loshakova, N. I., Krylova, T. V., Rutkowska-Krause, I., Trouve, J. P. (1994) Perspectives of haploids use for flax improvement ( Linum usitatissimum L.). In: Koslowski, R. (ed.) Report of Flax Genetic Resources Workshop, 2 nd Meeting of

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breeding programme. In: Engles, J.M., Hawkes, J.G., Werede, M. (eds), Plant Genetic Resources of Ethiopia. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK, pp. 315–322. Kebede Y

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-247. 245 247 Vaughan, D. A., Sitch, L. A. (1991): Gene flow from the jungle to farmers: wild rice genetic resources and their uses. BioScience , 41(1), 22

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