Both deficiency and
excess of P, Zn and Cu are common in soils and crops of Hungary. The excess and
deficiency of P occurring in agricultural soils and crops is a consequence of
previous fertilization practice. Zn deficiency occurs mainly on calcareous
soils well fertilized with P under maize, while Cu deficiency is often detected
on poor sandy soils and on organic soils under other crops. Zn and Cu excess
has been measured in city soils, in soils near highways and industrial areas. In the present paper the effect of P supply
is shown on yield and P/Zn ratios of crops, presenting the phenomena of the
P-induced Zn deficiency on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. In an other
long-term field trial on the same soil, the effect of Cu and Zn loads was
studied on soil and crop. The main conclusions drawn from these long-term field
experiments are as follows: 1. An excess of available P in the plough layer of
this soil might be detected by the ammonium lactate (AL) method when the soil
analysis shows concentrations higher than 150-200 mg/kg P
The P/Zn ratios of 6-leaf stage shoots and harvested straw of maize grown on
these plots might be higher than 200, while that of grain 150-200. 2. In the
frame of a fertilization program, P-induced Zn deficiency can be counterbalanced
effectively on such calcareous chernozem soils with the application of P and Zn
fertilizers in a ratio around 10:1. 3. The Cu content of crops could not be
markedly raised by using CuSO
fertilizer, even with rates as high
as 270 or 810 kg/ha Cu. However, as an effect of increased NxP fertilization,
the Cu content of maize grain doubled, or that of maize straw was 4-times
higher. This is an important tool for the Cu enrichment of animal diet, when
maize straw is also used for animal feeding. 4. The soil and plant analysis
data are proper means of controlling soil fertility and crop nutritional status
when the soil and plant data are previously calibrated in long-term field
This is a brief history of how a small group of people carried out its mandate to survey and map Canada in spite of the hostile environment — the second largest country in the world — in a 100 years.The levelling started from Halifax and by 1916 it reached Vancouver completing the coast-to-coast connection, encompassing about 22 000 km distance of which 94% was done on the railway tracks. The adjustment was carried out in 9 steps, it included the tide gauges in both the east and west coast, and was completed in 1928. The final adjustment used about 37 000 km length, from which 30 000 was measured by the GS. The first order re-levelling started after the Second World War and was carried out on the Trans-Canada highway. By 1994 Canada was covered by a levelling network of about 109 747 km. After this date there was no more conventional levelling.The triangulation used cross-braced quadrilaterals, based on the method used in the USA. In 1961 the GS started to use the conventional methods of chains of triangles. The measurements covered mostly the very southern part of Canada. The mapping of middle and northern part of the country had to await until the electronic era, which was practically made for Canada.The lower order accuracy was provided by Shoran, using about the average of 400 km line length for triangulation. Between 1947 and 1957 this method provided 501 measured triangle sides of about 200 000 km in total length and provided 119 base-point covering about 65% of Canada.The other method, the Aerodist — the Tellurometer version of Shoran — provided second order accuracy. The triangulation, using cross-braced quadrilaterals, with 100 km sides gave 219 points and covered about 25% of the land area of Canada. The measurements were done between 1965 and 1973.Recent measurements make use of GPS for geodetic position determination. A 10 year program started in 1987. In 1992 the GSD defined an official geoid to be used in connection with all satellite work.
A recent floristic and environmental survey was undertaken on the roadside verges along the main highway between El Arish and Rafah (31° 10'N, 33° 48'E and 31° 17'N, 34° 15'E) that extend for about 45 km on the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Sinai (Egypt). 63 stands were studied at 700-m intervals to represent the variation of vegetation, and to compile the floristic composition of the study area. Four main landform zones were distinguished (from the seashore inwards) and run parallel to the roadway: (A) coastal plain, (B) saline depressions, (C) sand plains and (D) sand dunes. There is a gradual increase in the total number of recorded species in the recognized landform units. Application of TWINSPAN analysis yielded 18 vegetation groups (VG) that comprised 7 main vegetation types (VT). These vegetation types were (I) Artemisia monosperma in the sand dunes, (II) Artemisia monosperma-Echinops spinosus in the sand plains, coastal plain and sand dunes, (III) Cyperus capitatus-Ammophila arenaria in the sand dunes, (IV) Ammophila arenaria-Pancratium maritimum in the coastal plain, (V) Zygophyllum album, (VI) Arthrocnemum macrostachyum and (VII) Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-Zygophyllum album in the saline depressions. Ordination techniques of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were used to examine the relationship between the roadside vegetation and the 8 studied environmental variables: total soluble salts (TSS), pH, calcium carbonate (CaCO_), sand, fine fractions (silt and clay), distance from the seashore (DFS), landform units (LF) and altitude (Alt). Both ordination techniques indicated that soil salinity, calcareous sediments, soil texture, landform, altitude and distance from seashore were the most important factors for the distribution of the vegetation pattern along the road verges in the study area. These gradients were related closely to the first three CCA axes, and accounted for 72.4% of the species relationship among the stands. Low species richness in the vegetation types of the coastal plain and saline depressions may be related to their high soil salinity, while the high species diversity and the highest share of alien weeds of vegetation types characterized the sand dunes may be related to the high disturbance of their substrates as a result of agriculture practising, farming processes and other excessive human disturbances.
Authors:Tamás Naszradi, Péter Köles, Katalin Balázs, and Béla Pirkó
Gratani, L., Taglioni, S. & Grescente, M. F., 1992. The accumulation of lead in agricultural soil and vegetation along a highway. Chemosphere. 24 . 941--949.
The accumulation of lead in agricultural soil and vegetation along a
Basky , Z. ( 2015 ): Brachycaudus species on herbaceous plants along highways in Hungary . Acta Phytopathol. et Entomol. Hung. 50 , 67 – 75 . DOI: 10.1556/038.50.2015.1.6
Blackman , R. L. and Eastop , V. F. ( 2006
Authors:T. Naszradi, N. Németh, P. Köles, and et al.
Minisztérium és a Mezőgazdasági Minősítő Intézet közös kiadványa, pp. 201-202.
Albasel, N., Cottenie, A. 1985: Heavy metal contamination near major highways, industrial and urban areas in Belgian grassland. Water, Air and
construction guidelines implementation manual
, US Department of Transport, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-97-070, 2000.
Bruce D. A., Gemme, R. Current practice in structural underpinning using pin
Garrick N. W. Speeds and street design results UConn and UCD, Highway design class, University lecture, University of Connecticut , February 2011.
Goldenbeld Ch., van Schagen, I. The credibility of speed limits on 80