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Middle English verb-second constraint: A case study in language contact and language change . In S. Herring , P. van Reenen and L. Schøsler (eds.) Textual parameters in older languages . Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 353 – 391

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The study fills the gaps in the lingustical database bearing on agriculture in the age of the Ŗgveda. Several corrections of existing standpoints have been made concerning purely philological issues as well as the semantical field of certain agricultural terms. The unbiassed reassessment of etymology of some terms reveals that beside the terms of Indo-European origin there are terms from extinct languages while the number of items of Dravidian origin is meagre and the Austro-Asiatic influence can be excluded. Language contacts with the Bactria-Margiana Complex (BMAC) must be taken into consideration. The all-around analysis of lingustic data and archaeological evidence together with the observations of historical ethnography allows us to form a more balanced view of economic conditions: although pastoralism played a dominant part in the life of Indo-Aryan speakers in the Panjab in the second half of the second millennium B.C., agriculture including wheat production gained also an established position in the region. Both the negligence and the overestimation of agriculture in this system are erroneous viewpoints.

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The paper gives a brief summary of the Czech contribution to the Carpathian Linguistic Atlas (CLA) project: a) the priority of the idea of the CLA itself (Vašek, The Vth International Congress of Slavists, Sophia, 1963); b) the dual linguistic influence of the Carpathian pastoral colonization (CPC) on the language of the local Carpathian settlement as a vital specific feature of the colonization (Vašek, La colonisation et la langue, Brno, 1964); c) the main character of the CLA is a linguistic one (Vašek, International Carpathological Symposium, Problemy karpatskogo jazykoznanija, Moskva, 1973); d) the written proposal to establish the Research Committee on Slavonic Language Contacts at the International Board of Slavists (Vašek, The VIth International Congress of Slavists, Warsaw-Lomža, 1973); e) the proposal of the original double scaled blank map of the CLA (Vašek and Marešová, Brno, The IXth Meeting of the International Board of Editors of the CLA, Moscow, 1981) and the printing ofthis map in Czechoslovakia (Vašek and Marešová, The Geographical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Brno, 1982). The bad political situation caused that the Czech national centre in Brno was not allowed to publish (at least one) map volume of the CLA or even to organize (at least one) international meeting of the IBE.

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The present article is dedicated to the study of interlingual contacts based on the facts given by the history of the Hungarian personal suffix -as. This suffix is used in modern Serbian, Croatian, Yugoslav-Ruthenian, Slovenian and Slovak literary languages and dialects. People speaking these dialects have been living for a long time in these territories that used to be a part of the Hungarian kingdom. The history of this suffix, its functioning and its present status is demonstrated on the basis of Carpathian and Ruthenian written old and new texts. The productivity of the borrowed personal suffix - ?? (-??) is considered to be a result of active interlingual contacts in the Carpathian region and also of the considerable influence of Hungarian on the language and culture in the  Southern Carpathian hills. There are many words in modern Carpatho-Rusyn texts which are borrowed from Hungarian, e.g.: ???????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ??????, ????????? etc. Some of them appear in word formation paradigms of the Carpatho-Rusyn motivated words, e.g.:????????, ????????????, ????????, ???????, ??????, ??????? and so on. The result of the Carpatho-Rusyn and Hungarian language contacts on word formation level testifies to a very intensive interaction. In modern Ruthenian the same tendency is to be observed: numerous lexical borrowings from Hungarian exist side by side with borrowings of units on a more abstract level. In our case the word formation suffix ?? (-??) with a personal meaning is of Hungarian origin and it is very productive in modern Carpatho-Rusyn.

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Langman, Juliet. 2006. Review of Anna Fenyvesi (ed.) 2005: Hungarian language contact outside Hungary: Studies on Hungarian as a minority language, Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Estudios de Sociolingüística 7. 105

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The author discusses similes of southern Slavs (Bulgarians and peoples of the former Yugoslavia, i.e. Bosnians, Serbs, Croats, and Montenegrins) with a semantically similar component such as an anthroponym of Oriental origin. The author deals with both outdated similes and those that are actively used nowadays.

Orientalisms usually include words belonging to different groups of Turkic as well as Iranian and Arab-Semitic languages. Historical events and language contacts contributed to the borrowing of thematically diverse Orientalisms by South Slavic languages. The result of the five-century domination of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula is borrowing from the Old Ottoman (Old Turkish) language, which became both the source language and (often) the intermediate language through which Arabisms and Persisms entered the South Slavic recipient languages. Therefore, in Bulgaria, the term Turkish-Arabic-Persian words is used to refer to this vocabulary. In addition to the Arab-Persian elements, the old Ottoman language is rich in borrowings from other languages (e.g. Greek). The term Turkish usually refers to the vocabulary of the old Ottoman rather than the modern Turkish language. Due to the vastness of anthroponyms of Oriental origin as a special genetic layer of South Slavic vocabulary, the author analyzes the expressions that denote a person in such aspects as intelligence, gender, and occupation.

Oriental vocabulary penetrated into the languages of Southern Slavs mainly through oral spoken language. The degree of penetration of Turkish words into the languages of the peoples of Southern Slavia is different. The outcome of borrowings also varies: they either remained in the recipient languages as exoticism, or have been completely assimilated in them. During semantic adaptation in the language that accepts Oriental vocabulary, there is sometimes an expansion or contraction of the meaning of a word. Many of the Turkish words that make up the comparison became historicisms and entered the passive vocabulary and in the modern language they are not used because of the disappearance of the realities they denote (for example, words associated with the system of administration in the Ottoman era). Another reason for transition into the passive vocabulary in the Balkans is the process of replacing the original words.

The paper defines the functional, semantic, and stylistic status of Eastern vocabulary in different social and cultural layers (standard languages and dialects) of South Slavic similes. Due to historical reasons, the greatest number of borrowings from the Turkish language as a part of similes is observed in Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as in Shtokavian dialects of Croatia. In addition to this, the author gives cultural, historical, and etymological comments to similes, analyzing the meaning of units and components that are parts of similes.

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References Becher , V. , House , J. & Kranich , S. 2009 . Convergence and Divergence of Communicative Norms through Language Contact in Translation . In

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2010 . The Handbook of Language Contact . Malden : Wiley-Blackwell . Krader , Lawrence 1963 . Social Organization of the

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Acta Linguistica Hungarica
Authors: Klára Agyagási and István Vásáry

and K. É. Kiss (eds.) Nyelvelmélet — kontaktológia: Műhelykonferencia előadásai [Linguistic theory and language contact: Papers from a workshop]. Piliscsaba: PPKE BTK. Benkő, Loránd. 1967–1976. A magyar nyelv t

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. Matras , Yaron . 2009 . Language contact . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press . Miklosich , Franz . 1872–1880 . Über die Mundarten und Wanderungen der

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