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In a long-term experiment on a mollisol in North India, the availability of Ca, Mg and S nutrients was enhanced under integrated nutrient management (INM) conditions, but depleted in the case of continuous rice-wheat-cowpea cropping for 28 years without nutrient input (control), suggesting the need for the regular estimation of these macronutrients in soils under intensive cropping. The soil was still able to supply crop needs for Ca and Mg, but the soil became S-deficient (8.9 mg kg−1) when S-free diammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer was applied. Its availability increased 5-fold (45.3 mg kg−1) after the application of S-containing single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer and improved further when this was combined with farmyard manure (FYM) in an INM system. The wheat response to S was 0.36 and 0.45 t ha−1 for the grain and straw yields, respectively. The highest removal of Ca, Mg and S was observed with INM (21.36, 27.52 and 13.38 kg ha−1, respectively) and the lowest in the unfertilized control.

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. Nagy P. T., Jászberényi I. & Loch J., 2002. Effect of fertilization on the amount of 0.01 M calcium chloride soluble nitrogen forms in the Nyírlugos long-term experiment (In Hungarian). In: Long-term Experiments, Regional Production, Rural

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The use of growth analysis and growth parameters could make an important contribution to improving the utilisation of N fertiliser by maize hybrids. In 2001 and 2002 the effect of four N fertiliser rates (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha −1 ) on the growth and productivity of three maize hybrids with different vegetation periods was studied in a long-term experiment involving continuous maize, representing a stress environment, set up in Martonvásár on chernozem soil with forest residues almost 50 years ago. Each year eight samples were taken at 14-day intervals for the destructive method of growth analysis. N fertiliser was found to have a significant effect on the growth parameters of individual plants (RGR, NAR, LAR) in both the vegetative and generative stages of growth, up to N rates of 80 and 160 kg ha −1 , respectively. The value of RGR increased until the N 160 treatment and that of NAR until N 80 , while LAR declined significantly in response to N fertilisation. RLGR was enhanced by N fertiliser up to a rate of N 80 , and all the N treatments reduced the extent of leaf withering. Among the growth parameters of the canopy, the values of CGR and HI rose significantly up to N 160 and that of LAI max up to N 80 . The cumulative values of LAD and BMD were highest in the N 160 treatment. All the growth parameters increased as the vegetation period of the hybrids lengthened, and all reflected the year effect. Compared to the highest N rate, N stress of 29–38% was calculated for the control treatment. On average, N fertilisation resulted in a 6–27% relative decline in LAI after flowering.

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Németh, T., G. Kovács, I. Kádár 1988: A nitrát, a szulfát és az “összes” só bemosódásának vizsgálata műtrágyázási tartamkísérletekben (Leaching of nitrate, sulphate and “total” salt in fertilization long-term experiment). - Agrokémia és Talajtan, 36

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and N fertilisation on the yield and yield stability of maize ( Zea mays L.) hybrids in a long-term experiment. Acta Agron. Hung. , 56 , 247–264. Dang Q. L. Effect of

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fertilisation on maize yields and yield stability in a long-term experiment.) Növénytermelés , 45 , 281-296. A vetésforgó és a trágyázás hatása a kukorica termésére és termésstabilitására tartamkísérletben. (Effect of crop rotation

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Investigations on the process of dry matter accumulation over time could contribute to improvements in the N fertiliser utilisation of maize hybrids. In 2001 and 2002 the effect of four N fertiliser rates (0, 80, 160, 240 kg ha −1 ) on the growth and productivity of three maize hybrids with different vegetation periods [Mv TC 272 (FAO 280), Mv 355 SC (FAO 390) and Maraton SC (FAO 450)] was studied in an almost 50-year-old long-term experiment involving continuous maize, as a stress environment. The experiment was set up in Martonvásár on chernozem soil with forest residues in a split-plot design with four replications, with the N treatments in the main plots and the maize hybrids in the subplots. Plant samples for yield analysis were taken at 14-day intervals on 8 occasions a year. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the whole plants and in various plant organs (stalk, leaf, grain), and that of leaf area, differed significantly between N treatments and hybrids. The effect of mineral N fertilisation was significant from the 4–6-leaf stage and the differences between hybrids from the flowering stage. Both the dry matter yield and the leaf area were greatest in the N 160 treatment. The greatest difference in the pattern of N fertiliser reactions over time was detected between the pre-flowering and post-flowering stages. The maize grain yield was greatest in the N 160 treatment, exhibiting the following values (t ha −1 ) in the individual N treatments: N 0 : 4.907, N 80 : 7.872, N 160 : 8.921, N 240 : 8.770. The results indicate that the dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the whole maize plant and in various plant organs could further our understanding of the N fertiliser responses of maize hybrids.

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Szili-Kovács, T. et al., 2009. Correlation between biological and chemical properties in soils from long-term experiments. (In Hungarian) Agrokémia és Talajtan. 58 . 309–325. Szili-Kovács T

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.) hibridek szemtermésére és N-műtrágyareakciójára tartamkísérletben. (Effect of N-fertilisation on the grain yield and N fertiliser response of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids in a long-term experiment.) Növénytermelés , 52 , 389

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. : 2007 . Effect of maize stalks and N fertilisation on the yield and yield stability of maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a monoculture in a long-term experiment . Cereal Res. Commun . 35 : 249 – 252 . 6

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