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The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional habits and lifestyle practice of elderly people living in their own home. Altogether 213 subjects (men over 65 years, women over 60 years), were recruited randomly from a primary care office in Budapest. Nearly 60% of people had three meals per day, but the number of meals increased during ageing. The most substantial meal was the lunch. Meals were prepared at home by 90% of the elderly. Lard for cooking was used by 44% of subjects. Additional use of salt was never mentioned by 18% of seniors only. Milk, dairy products, fish, fruits, fresh vegetables and vegetable dish were consumed far below the recommendations. All types of meat were radically decreased, especially beef compared to former Hungarian surveys and the data of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Almost one-third of the elderly took some kind of vitamins and/or mineral supplements. The average time spent with outdoor activity was only 12 h per week.In relation to non-infectious diseases connected with nutrition, the irregular consumption of food has to be underlined. The insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products may have an unfavourable effect on the bone status. Deficient consumption of fruits, vegetables and cereals may play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases and certain types of tumours. The exaggerated salt intake has to be taken into account mainly in hypertension. The inadequate physical activity may be also responsible for decreased longevity of our population.

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This paper describes the production of an enzyme preparation from the fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus. Thermal resistance, pH stability and lignocellulolytic activity of the enzyme preparation high in xylanase were studied on a variety of grains and forages. The enzyme preparation preserved more than 70% of its original xylanase activity for 4 and 1 h at 60 and 70 °C, respectively. The xylanase activity remained over 80% when the preparation was incubated for 30 min at pH 4.5. In vitro digestibility studies indicated that the enzyme digested 7.5, 8.5 and 8.0% of the dry matter (DM) of barley meal, wheat bran and oat meal samples, respectively. When applying 60-min incubation, 7.5, 7.3 and 8.4% of DM of the oat straw, alfalfa hay and triticale straw was digested, respectively. When the time of digestion was increased to 360 min, the sunflower hull showed 15.8% DM digestibility.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: E. Yatmaz, E. Karahalil, M. Germec, H.R. Oziyci, M. Karhan, G. Duruksu, Z.B. Ogel, and I. Turhan

β-mannanases can degrade galactomannans to mannose and it has been used in various application areas. The aim of this study was to produce the β-mannanase from carob pod extract including different nitrogen sources. The best operation values for fermentation were determined to be 8% initial sugar concentration with 0.5% yeast extract, 100 r.p.m., and 7% inoculation rate, which yielded the maximum β-mannanase activity as 423.60 U ml–1. Effects of nitrogen sources on β-mannanase activity were also studied and it reached 695.6 U ml−1 by using 0.5% of ammonium nitrate as the nitrogen source at the determined optimum conditions. Results also showed that meat bone meal and soybean meal could be used as cost effective nitrogen sources based on achieved β-mannanase activity.

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The aim of the study was to assay by PCR screening method whether the processing and the thermal stress have any influence on the feasibility of the detection of genetically modified DNA in different kinds of processed meat products such as sausages, liver cans, ready-to-eat hamburgers. The model meat products have been prepared with soybean meal spiked with RR (Roundup Ready) soybean meal in 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%. The samples were prepared under industrial circumstances. The assay was based on the detection of the specific part of the 35S promoter and the NOS terminator sequences. The modified PCR method was shown to be suitable for screening of GMOs in raw and also in moderately and highly processed meat samples when extreme heat treatment and pressure were used for the preparation of meat products. Half a percent RR soy contamination could be detected even if the food products underwent high temperature treatment.

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In the microflora of sunflower seeds stored in domestic stores the, Alternaria species dominate, while those of Penicillium, Trichoderma, Stemphylium and Absidia spp. are present in lower numbers. During model tests (cca 20% seed moisture content, 25 °C, 4 weeks storage) the Alternaria species were almost completely eliminated and on the seeds mainly Aspergillus species, characteristic of stores, propagated. The moulds significantly deteriorated the quality of the seed and that of the produced oil and meal (reproductive ability, germinating power, oil content, lipoxygenase enzyme activity, acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, UV absorbance, colour, sensorial properties, as well as the protein content, amino acid composition, colour and the smell of the meal), but no aflatoxin production occurred. The findings offer a comprehensive picture on the multiple destructive effects of incorrect storage.

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Az evéssel kapcsolatos civilizációs zavarok gyakoribbá válásának hátterében a kulturális hatások lényegesek. Ezek között a nemzeti identitásvesztés fontos lehet. A nemzeti identitás kialakulásában az ételekkel és étkezéssel kapcsolatos hagyományok szerepe alapvető. A nemzeti szimbólumok között számos étel található, amelyeket gyakran használunk a nemzetek jellemzésében. Az ételek fontos szerepet töltenek be a kulturális emlékezetben is. A közös emlékezet jelentősége nagy az identitásban, s az ételekre, ételkészítésre való emlékezés a kultúrákban fontos etnikai összetartó erő. Ezt segíti az ételek és az étkezés időt strukturáló hatása is. A globalizáció korában a nemzeti ételek segítik a speciális nemzeti karakter megőrzését, de az európai szokásokhoz való alkalmazkodás megkívánja az ételkészítés átalakulását is. A jövő kérdése, hogy ez a hatás mennyire jár a nemzeti identitás csökkenésével, és fokozza-e az evéssel kapcsolatos patológiás megnyilvánulások gyakoriságát.

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Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) is rich in phenolic substances, mainly flavonoids and tannins. The influence of AMFJ (5 and 10 ml kg−1) on the gastrointestinal propulsion of charcoal meal in rats was investigated. AMFJ dose-dependently reduced the rate of intestinal transit and the effect was statistically significant at the dose of 10 ml kg−1. This reduction of the intestinal transit rate might be due to the the presence of flavonoids and tannins in the juice.

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Abstract  

The protein content of various corn-meals /rice, lupine, sorghum, pumpkin, linseed, water melon, tomato/ collected from Egypt and the USA have been determined by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis via14N/n, 2n/13N reaction. Non-conventional sources like tea and coffee residues were also investigated. The concentrations of trace elements determined by the X-ray fluorescence technique show definite differences even for a given type of seed produced in different geographical regions.

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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4 and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett—Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO4, K2HPO4, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K2HPO4, KH2PO4 and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett—Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

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Abstract  

INAA and anti-Compton spectrometry has been employed in the analysis of test bone samples. Validity and accuracy of the method were checked by the use of two biological reference materials procured from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST) and the International Atomic Energy Agency, Austria (IAEA). NIST 1486 Bone Meal (ca. 200–800 mg) and A-11 Milk Powder (ca. 200–600 mg) samples were irradiated in the 100 kW TRIGA Mainz reactor. Concentrations of 13 elements in both biological reference materials have been determined and were found in good agreement with the certified and provisional values.

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