Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Vols I-II. New York: Columbia University Press, 1950.
The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and
This paper traces the international history of Eastern Europe in the 20th century within the analytical framework of the national self-determination/independence paradigm. It argues that in 1918 the allied powers dissolved the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in the hope that the newly established nation states would strengthen European stability and would balance Russian and German power. The Munich agreement was not a mistake but a conscious effort to reorganize the continent on a more stable basis after it turned out that the international system created for middle Europe in Paris was not working. Thereafter Great Britain strove to achieve continental balance by surrendering the region to German, later to Soviet hegemony. This would also be the policy of the United States until 1948 when the Truman administration decided that the restoration of national independence in Eastern Europe would create a safer Europe. After the failure of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution the U.S. returned to the position that continental stability took precedence over the independence of the Soviet satellites, a view shared by the major NATO allies. This remained the Western position through 1989. The restoration of national independence and continental reunification originated in Eastern Europe, which for the first time since 1918 was a policy maker in the international arena.
It is a well-known fact that Theodore Roosevelt was and still is one of the most popular presidents of the United States. It is also somewhat known that he had a relatively brief, and relatively good relationship with Count Albert Apponyi, one of the most influential politicians of Hungary in the first three decades of the twentieth century. Perhaps a somewhat lesser known fact is that Roosevelt visited Hungary in 1910. As part of a European tour in the spring of that year, Theodore Roosevelt spent three days in Hungary. The courtesy visit was made into a huge and significant- looking event in Hungary behind which there were certain wishes, bitterness, and propaganda aims on the part of the Hungarian political leadership. Hungary hoped by the virtue of the ex-President’s visit to prove the country’s equal standing with Austria within the Dual Monarchy. Furthermore, the well-educated Roosevelt knew exactly what his hosts wanted to hear and, accordingly, although inadvertently, he kindled the flames of Hungarian independence, a concept with which he did not agree. The paper wishes to tell the story of Theodore Roosevelt’s short stay in Hungary as well as the importance, and lack of consequences, of such a visit.
Geographically situated some 550 kilometers southeast of Vienna and 250 kilometers southeast of Budapest, Timişoara assimilated the influences of the two former imperial capitals relatively quickly. Its European openness was facilitated by the practice of plurilingualism and multiconfessionalism. At the beginning of the 20th century, Timişoara’s population spoke five languages, namely Hungarian, German, Serbian, Romanian and Bulgarian. The main religious affiliations were Roman-Catholic, Orthodox, Greek-Catholic, Evangelic-Lutheran, Reformist-Calvinist Churches and Jewish. Interculturality and the intermingling of populations generated a very promising social culture. Analyzed from the behavioral point of view, Timişoara was an example of multi-cultural and intercultural society for two centuries, which made it possible for this center to be integrated into Europe ever since the 19th century and to represent the main link between the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy and the Balkan Peninsula. The multicultural and intercultural dimensions gave consistency to the anti-totalitarian resistance over the course of the 20th century. This was why the intellectuals in the post-Ceauşescu period defined the city’s distinctiveness with the expression “the spirit of Timişoara”.
Various spatial data sets of high quality and homogeneity allow a higher level of multidisciplinary research. The study is aimed at providing a clearer understanding of the technical and semantic aspects of the quality of historical maps, especially with respect to positional errors, through the georeferencing process. Georeferencing the system of historical map sheets with high precision over a large area is not easily incorporated into the less complicated standardised process. Significant problems may occur in rough mountainous regions, especially as many of the areas were not accessed at that time and therefore not surveyed. The standard process of georeferencing comprises mosaicking of singular map sheets to a seamless map, referencing with identical points, and applying an appropriate transformation method. The quality of georeferenced maps is assessed with statistical and visual parameters. The enhanced process additionally integrates descriptive (textual) information about the mapping processes, derivative georeferenced data sets as land use analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations. This approach allows a more detailed understanding of the quality and consequently improves a georeferencing process for any historical data sets. The First Military Survey maps of the Habsburg Monarchy (Josephine survey), produced between 1763 and 1787, were used as study data and the rugged Julian Alps of the Triglav National Park in Slovenia were employed as the study area.
This paper deals with the description and drawing prepared in 1857 on the minaret of Érd. The k. k. Central-Commission zur Erforschung und Erhaltung der Baudenkmale was established on the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy in 1850. The conservers, the correspondents and the engineers of the k. k. Baubehörde surveyed and pictured several architectural and archaeological monuments and reported on them to Vienna. In this study a drawing and descriptions of the minaret standing at the border of Érd are published. The survey was made for the order of Florian Menapace, Landesbaudirektor, who sent the drawing and the attached remarks to Vienna. Only the drawing can be found nowadays in the Archiv of the Central-Commission, today the Planarchiv of the Bundesdenkmalamt. The drawing was made by Wenzl Kansky. Fortunately, the description prepared by the engineer Alajos Zalay and the Menapace report based on it remained in Hungarian State Archiv in Budapest. They are important sources on the minaret built in the 17th century and the autor gives an evaluation on it in the study.
A cikk a Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Széchenyi István téri székháza ünnepélyes átadásának másfélszáz éves évfordulója alkalmából bemutatja a várostörténeti szempontból is kiemelkedő jelentőségű középület építése során alkalmazott kőanyagokat. Levéltári források és kordokumentumok alapján ismerteti az építkezés legfontosabb eseményeit, az építő- és díszítőkövek beszerzésének, felhasználásának körülményeit, az ehhez kapcsolódó költségeket, majd ezt követően a kőzetek típusait, származási helyét veszi sorra. A székház kőzeteinek kiválasztása a neoreneszánsz ízlés- és formavilágát tükrözi: az épület homlokzata uralkodóan Budapest környéki porózus mészkövekből, forrásvízi mészkőből, lábazata pedig gerecsei vörös mészkőből áll, belsejében a Habsburg Monarchia területéről származó csiszolható mészkövek és márványok láthatók.
A budapesti Nyugati pályaudvar ünnepélyes átadásának 140. évfordulója alkalmából a szerző összefoglalja a közlekedés-, város- és építészettörténeti tekintetben is különleges fontosságú létesítmény építő- és díszítőköveire vonatkozó kutatási eredményeit. A tanulmány első része a pályaudvar bemutatását követően az építkezésnek a téma szempontjából legfontosabb eseményeit veszi sorra és ismerteti a kőanyagok felhasználásának körülményeit, majd a második rész a szóban forgó kőzetek származási helyét, legfontosabb tulajdonságait mutatja be. A kövek kiválasztása és felhasználása az építtetők azon szándékát tükrözi, hogy a pályaudvart építésekor a Habsburg-monarchia egyik legjelentősebb, reprezentatív vasúti létesítményének szánták.
A special chapter of research into the history of folk music in the time of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy was the Musikhistorische Zentrale (Music History Department) at the imperial royal Ministry of War. It was established during World War I, modelled on the Austrian Volksliedunternehmen (today Volksliedwerk). The Musikhistorische Zentrale wanted to collect all the soldiers’ songs, fanfares, military music, soldiers’ sayings, customs, jokes, letters and their expressions which are of historical and cultural significance. Bernhard Paumgartner (1887–1971), a musician and lawyer, had the idea of collecting this material. After the war, he became well known as the director of the Mozarteum in Salzburg, as conductor, music researcher and member of the Salzburger Festspiele. Under Paumgartner’s direction, notable individuals were involved in the compilation of Musikhistorische Zentrale. One of these men was the student of composition and musicology Felix Petyrek (1892–1951), who was dedicated to folk music all over his life as composer as well as researcher and music teacher. Other important collaborators for the Hungarian part on the collection were Zoltán Kodály and Béla Bartók.
The Hungarian Parliament – construction, decoration, ideology. The Hungarian Parliament in Budapest (1885–1902) was one of the largest buildings of its time in Europe. As home to the nation’s legislature, it also had to serve as a veritable monument glorifying the country’s history and its newly-acquired status within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Following an architectural competition, Imre Steindl, a professor at the Budapest Technical University, received the commission to realise his plan. In fact, Count Gyula Andrássy, a highly influential aristocrat and statesman, had picked his entry due to its style, analogous to the Neo-Gothic style of the London Houses of Parliament. Though historicist in appearance and opulent in terms of materials and decoration, modern technology also played a considerable role in its construction. The statues in the rotunda and on the exterior of the building were meant to immortalise Hungary’s great historical personalities, even if their moderate size, uniform style and subordinated position curtailed artistic expression. The relatively small number of mural paintings, highlighting outstanding events of Hungarian history, were virtually overwhelmed by the wealth of colourful decoration. All in all, Steindl wanted the whole structure to be a single work of art bearing his mark. The Hungarian Parliament ranks high among parliament buildings on the international scene.