and identified similar patterns in their journeys. Secondly, these teacher trainers, besides pursuing their own professional development, often end up in volunteer positions for the professional organisations they belong to. It is a genuine question
The aim of this study is to reveal the possible linkage among the 40 primary organizations in Genetic Engineering Research
by taking the Patent Coupling approach. The primary organizations were defined by the productivity and identified by the patent
count and Bradford Law. The author analyzed the cited patents of the patents granted by United States Patent and Trademark
Office (USPTO) from 1991 to 2002 to the 40 primary organizations (assignees) in Genetics Engineering Research to establish
780 coupling pairs formed by the 40 primary organizations and Coupling Index and Coupling Strength were calculated for each
pair and primary organization. Correlation Analysis and Multiple-Dimension Scaling were applied further based on Coupling
Index. Technological clusters were found in the results of the analyses.
In this paper an attempt is made to construct a typology of research units according to a set of organizational features and
relate the resulting classification to a set of performance measures. The organizational features include (i) resources and
facilities for research; (ii) Communication and transfer of new ideas; (iii) Planning and organization of research; and (iv)
Social psychological environment for research. The performance measure include (i) General R&D effectiveness, which essentially
connotes the quality dimension of research performance; (ii) Recognition of the work of the research unit by the scientific
community; (iii) User-oriented effectiveness; and (iv) Administrative effectiveness (budget and schedule compliance).
This study is based on the subset of empirical data on 220 research units collected in India for the third round of the UNESCO
International Comparative Study on the Organization and Performance of Research Units (ICSOPRU). Twenty three measures of
organizational environment, operationalized by multiple indicators, were chosen as discriminant criteria for the construction
of the typology, using a classification computer programme SYSTIT (Systeme' de Typologie Iterative). The relationship between
typology groupings and performance measures was analyzed through multiple correspondence analysis.
This study brings out that resources and facilities for research are a necessary but not a sufficient condition of performance.
The sufficiency condition implies a positive work environment, effective communication within and outside the research group
and a conceptually exciting research programme.
The present paper represents an overview of the work of the Committee TE21 of the Hellenic Organization for Standardization (ELOT). The main activities are presented under the subtitles Administrative organization, Mission, Operation, The production plan, The communication plan and more details about activities in this field are provided.
Information on the organization and funding of medical research were obtained by a questionnaire from 10 member countries of the European Medical Research Councils. Responses show that the ratio of medical research expenditure to Gross Domestic Product varied from 0.1 to 0.2 per cent between these countries. In many countries, the largest single source of funds was pharmaceutical industry; its share of the total expenditure varied between one and 58 per cent. Excluding pharmaceutical industry, the contribution of Medical Research Councils (MRCs) varied from 2 to 22 per cent of the remaining expenditure. The present figures, derived directly from the national research organizations, were considerably higher than the respective OECD figures.A great deal of variation between the national MRCs in the distribution of funds by field of research, type of activity, and type of cost was observed. The average cost of a research project varied between 4800–97000 U.S. dollars. The variation is probably explained to a great extent by availability of other sources of funds.All MRCs used peer review in the assessment of research proposals. Criteria for peer review varied much. Only two MRCs mentioned specifically the needs of the society among the criteria. The various medical research organizations are described in detail in this report.
societal factors, including policies, individuals, and organizations (Layne and Lee 2001 ; Khan et al. 2011 ). Recently, Korea's National Information Society Agency in Korea suggested a communication-oriented e-government system as a new paradigm to
Various data are collected for 15 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that have to do with the practising of astronomy: (1) using the report of the Astronomy expert meeting of the Megascience Forum of the OECD, the level of astronomy funding, size of the research communities, relative commitment to ground-based versus space-based astronomy, etc.; (2) from other sources the size of the population, Gross National Product and size of the total research community; (3) from the paper ofSchubert et al. (1989) data on publication and citation scores of these countries in astronomy and the total research effort (excluding social and economic sciences). Using these data the 15 countries have been ranked on: (1) the relative level of astronomy funding; (2) the relative level of performance in astronomy; (3) the correspondence between funding and performance in astronomy; (4) the relative level of performance of the total science effort; and (5) the performance in astronomy relative to that in all sciences.The results of this study have been summarized in table 10 below. Other interesting results that can be inferred from the data collected in this paper are: (1) one out of every 75,000 inhabitants of these OECD countries is an astronomical researcher; (2) each citizen of these countries spends on average 2.5 $ per year on astronomical research (either from the ground or in space); (3) the average budget per researcher amounts to roughly 200,000 $ per annum; (4) the average budget for astronomy amounts to 0.016% of the Gross National Product and of order 1% of the total budget for civilian R & D; (5) an astronomical researcher from these countries produces on average 1.7 papers each year and these papers receive on average ten citations in the first five years; (6) researchers in science (excluding economic and social sciences) make up 0.08% of the population in these countries and one in about 65 of these researchers works in astronomy or astrophysics; (7) most countries spend about one-third of their astronomy budget on salaries, one-sixth on basic support and half on observing facilities (in a ratio one to two for ground-based versus space).
Publication and citation indicators of groups are thought to enhance the quality and legitimacy of science policy decisions. While these indicators might be of value from a policy pont of view, the relation between these cumulative data and the local circumstances that influence the development of scientific knowledge has not been explored extensively. In this paper it is argued that publication and citation patterns related to research units are influenced by local circumstances. Toxicology is chosen as an example because it is directed at solving social problems and relates to local practices. In this paper, output indicatiors of Dutch toxicological research units are related to qualitative information on the strategies of these units. it can be shown that the variation in output and citation indicators can be explained in terms of local variations in context. Such variations in local organizational settings should caution against the application of scientometric studies to measure impact as an indicator of scientific quality.