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statistical software (version 9.0, 2010, SAS Institute, Cary, NC) after all experiments were carried out three times on dependent samples. Differences between EP-treated and control samples regarding bacterial populations, colour and sensorial properties were

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Socio-economic analyses appeared among the research subjects of the Central Food Research Institute for the first time in 1982 with reference to the institutional reorganization. In addition to the earlier issues supported by economic calculations, activities of the unit involved in food economics had been more and more featured by turning to topics serving for quality products manufacture (implementation of quality management systems, labelling, the population’s food consumption etc.), as well as by joining the research work of the associated departments making their activities more complex. Also the socioeconomic regime change in 1989 made substantial impact on the activities performed at the unit. For the time being, consumer scientific studies provide main direction of the research with special regard to consumer perception of food safety risks and food safety risk communication.Possibilities for dynamic development in the pioneered way seem to be sure with reflection to healthy nutrition as well as environmental and ethical issues.

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Nowadays, plants from the Lamiaceae family (rosemary, garden thyme, sage) are used mainly as natural antioxidants. However, their strong smell and taste are not desirable in the food industry. From this point of view, self-heal ( Prunella vulgaris L.) can be considered as one of the most perspective plants, since it is almost taste-and odourless, and it is rich in phenolic compounds. Taking into account its advantageous characteristics, in 2005, we were the first who examined the morphological and chemical diversity of seven populations of self-heal collected from different natural habitats in Hungary. Our results were compared to a cultivated population, too. The total phenolic compounds (measured by modified method of Singleton & Rossi , 1965) and the antioxidant powers (measured by the FRAP method), as well as the rosmarinic acid content of the samples were significantly different from each other. The highest total-phenol (0.43±0.01 mg GAE ml −1 ) and rosmarinic acid content (1.84±0.03 mg g −1 ) was observed in the one-year-old population under cultivation, while the strongest antioxidant activity was measured in the samples collected in Mátra Hills (0.35±0.04 mg AAE ml −1 ). According to our results, in the future, it will probably be possible to optimise the cultivation conditions of Prunella vulgaris providing high quality for the food-industry.

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A recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain containing a plasmid encoding a luxAB fusion, which gave bioluminescence upon addition of an exogenous long-chain aldehyde as substrate for the endogenous luciferase enzyme, was used as test organism. Its populations were treated with 300 MPa for 20 min, or 600 MPa for 20 min at around room temperature, and this treatment is foreseen as a quality-friendly, non-thermal pasteurisation of foods. Besides the estimation of viable cell counts, the extent of pressure-induced germination and post-process development were investigated by phase-contrast microscopy, turbidimetry and luminometry. Increased heat sensitivity of pressurized spore populations was observed both by viable cell counting during a linearly programmed elevation of temperature and a simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry. This was related to pressure-induced germination of spores, although a small fraction remained ungerminated. The luciferase pool built into the spores during their formation seemed to have withstood pressurization. Spore germination was accompanied by the emergence of bioluminescence which also indicated sensitively the characteristic changes of metabolic activity running parallel with the development of untreated cell populations and that of the survivors of the hydrostatic pressure treatments when the cells were incubated in a nutrient broth.

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The water sources located on the inland islands on the left side of the Danube River as well as water sources located on the right bank of the Danube River in the Pečniansky forest have an irreplaceable function in terms of supplying the population in Bratislava with drinking water. There are 80 wells in these mentioned areas operated by the Bratislava Water Company. In order to maintain the actual functions of the water resources, it is therefore necessary to assess the impact of the proposed construction of the multi-purposed structure ‘Hydraulic structure Bratislava — Pečniansky forest’ on these water sources.

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Increased population growth and changing environmental conditions have focused attention on sustainability of karst spring flow. In Hungary, the quality of karst springs is acceptable for drinking water supply; the only treatment it needs is the disinfection. Aggtelek is one of the best-studied karst regions; a hydrologic monitoring network was built and operated at the Jósvafő Research Station for about 50 years. The long-term data for the 15 major karst springs, rainfall, and temperature was available for analyses. This paper presents a methodology to estimate karst spring recharge, which can then be adapted to predict karst spring flow in lessstudied areas.

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Cities are responsible for about 30% of the energy consumed worldwide. Since 2007 more than 50% of the world population lives in cities, and urbanization is still growing. The energy-efficiency of cities is gaining greater importance today. The paper examines the possibilities of energy consumption reduction and optimization in cities. Various urban and architectural tools are described below that affect indirectly and directly the energy balance of cities. The possible ways of using renewable energy sources in cities have been analyzed. Ways and means of their use is analyzed in on-site, nearby and off-site systems.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors: Monika Čuláková, Ingrid Šenitková, and Alena Paulíková

The building industry represents huge consumer of sources and energy, heavy polluter and waste producer. The material and energy resources are limited with regard to current increasing population and affluence increase trends. The buildings during life cycle can make substantial contribution to energy and carbon conservation by sophisticated building approach. The environmental assessment of construction solutions by methodology life cycle assessment showed that using natural plant materials, which serve as long-term carbon store, ensure elimination of carbon footprint and energy consumption. The aim of multi-criteria analysis is to optimize the design of high environmental performance, energy effective and healthy constructions of green building.

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The effect of three different modified atmospheres on the shelf-life of sponge cake was studied. Three packaging atmospheres were tested: 50% CO2: 50% N2, 100% CO2, and standard air as control. The samples were examined daily for visible mould growth and analysed periodically (after 2, 6, 13, 22 and 27 days) throughout storage (15–20 °C and 51–63% RH) for gaseous composition and microbial populations: mesophilic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts and moulds. The atmosphere CO2:N2 (50:50) extended the shelf-life of the sponge cakes by 2–3 days with respect to packaging in standard air.

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Wheat, an important staple cereal crop cultivated in seleniferous region of India, noted to accumulated significantly high concentrations of Se, was examined for the distribution of selenium in various protein fractions of the grains. Amongst the protein fractions, Se was dominantly (33–37%) present in the albumin fraction in Se rich grains followed by other fractions viz., globulin (20–25%), glutelin (20–25%), and prolamin (17–20%). The observations are important in context of exploring the use of this material as functional foods in formulating Se-enriched diets for Se-deficient population.

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