A tanulmány tárgyát képező svájci jogi-közigazgatási terminológiai adatbank alapjait még 1987-ben fektették le, jelentős múlttal rendelkező projektről van tehát szó. Az adatbankot mind a mai napig frissítik és használják, sőt, nemrég számottevő, felhasználóbarát újításokat is végrehajtottak rajta. A TermDat létrejöttének körülményeit, típusát, felépítésének adatmezőit ismertetjük a tanulmányban, mivel ezek az információk számos tanulsággal szolgálhatnak akár hazai terminológiai adatbázisok létrehozására. Sőt, az alaposabb megismerés elősegítésére az olvasó még a háttérben folyó terminológiai munkába is betekintést nyerhet.
In 1918, Slovenia became a constituent part of Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Yugoslavia was reconstituted as a socialist state. When the attempts to turn Yugoslavia into a democratic country failed, Slovenia decided to become independent. As it is reflected in its new Constitution (1991), Slovenia is designed as a parliamentary republic, as a unitary state with local self-government and is strives to become a social state. During the transition from socialism, Slovenian law faced numerous challenges like the privatization of economy. The political and legal transition is still taking place. Hopefully, the entry to the European Union will give it new dimensions. Between the two world wars, Slovenian legal science was especially influenced by Austrian-German legal positivism; although the legal-comparative, sociological and axiological methods were important as well. After the Second World War, in some critical periods an apologetic legal positivism gained the upper hand in certain areas. On the other hand, new legal institutes and departments furthered the development of new sciences (criminology, sociology of law, political economy, public administration). New scientific areas emerged (comparative commercial law, comparative labour law and the law of the European Union). Some legal sciences (like criminal law) have been enriched by additional (sociological, axiological and comparative methods) methods.
The essay analyses the process of privatization in the transitional period. In the early 1990's, the privatization of the competitive sphere in Hungary meant the purchase of state-owned companies. Besides the legal background, the essay gives an overview on the political aspects of privatization. The next step was the privatization of public services in the middle of the 90's. The privatization of the sector of public services is peculiar as privatised public services remain under governmental control even after their privatization: public administration is responsible for the continuity of the service, for its general accessibility and its quality. The essay deals with the issues of the application of law in this respect. The privatization of the welfare sphere was primarily characterised by the retreat of the state without applying alternative methods like initiating the participation of non-profit organizations. In the analyses of the privatization of the welfare sphere, the essay deals with the principles of privatization, as well as the constitutional problems involved and the conflicts of the central government and the self-governments.
Authors:Stephen Osborne, Zoe Radnor, Tony Kinder, and Isabel Vidal
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In international business practice, subcontracting is an unbalanced form of co-operation. It can bring serious negative effects for partners from less developed countries because of the strong onesided dependence on the “developed” partner. International experience, e.g. in the maquiladora region suggests that degradation of corporate activities, low profitability, technological dependence, loss of own production and shrinking market presence of own products may characterise many firms, and even whole industries or regions. These firms, regions and industries often become isolated from the national economy. Therefore, potential positive modernisation effects may also be “locked” in the subcontracting firm not spreading in the economy.
Hungarian experience with subcontracting was somewhat different already in the 1970s and 1980s. Companies concluded subcontracts with more developed Western partners in order to gain access to up-to-date technology and know-how, new markets and new products. Many of them incorporated the acquired knowledge with success. During the 1990s subcontracting was the driving force of corporate modernisation, since former development sources (primarily state subsidies) dried up. Many firms chose the new option of adjustment strategy. The efforts of Hungarian companies to integrate into the international division of labour coincided with the substantial change of subcontracting deals on world markets. Subcontracting became a form of outsourcing and changed to a long-term, network-type of co-operation form with considerable knowledge transfer.
This study presents the results of an empirical survey. The Department of Business Economics of the Budapest University of Economics and Public Administration carried out two rounds of interviews in more than 300 companies both in 1996 and 1999. The survey revealed some new features of international subcontracting patterns and found some evidence of modernisation impacts subcontracting has on Hungarian corporate strategies.