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Abstract  

An incremental integral isoconversional method for the determination of activation energy as a function of the extent of conversion is presented. The method is based on the treatment of experimental data without their transformation so that the resulting values of activation parameters should not be biased. The method was tested for recovering the activation energies from simulated data and employed for the treatment of experimental data of the NiS recrystallisation.

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structure of honey can change, the mobility of ions and charged groups can increase causing a decrease of electrical impedance of honey. The recrystallization of honey, the recovery to the original state presumably takes a relatively long time – some weeks

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The dehydration and dehydroxylation of the smectites, beidellite and montmorillonite (dioctahedral) and saponite and laponite (trioctahedral), were investigated by ETA, DTA, TG and X-ray diffractions. There are differences between the behaviors of di- and trioctahedral clays which are due to the differences in the ability of the exchangeable cations to migrate into hexagonal holes of the SiO4 network and due to the fact that the dehydroxylation and recrystallization of dehydroxylated trioctahedral smectites occur simultaneously, whereas there is a temperature gap of about 300°C between the dehydroxylation and the recrystallization of dioctahedral smectites.

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Abstract  

Temperature modulated dynamic mechanical analysis (TMDMA) was performed in the same way as temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) measurements. As in TMDSC TMDMA allows the investigation of reversible and non-reversible phenomena during crystallisation of polymers. The advantage of TMDMA compared to TMDSC is the high sensitivity for small and slow changes in crystallinity, e.g. during re-crystallisation. The combination of TMDMA and TMDSC yields new information about local processes at the surface of polymer crystallites. It is shown that during and after isothermal crystallisation the surface of the individual crystallites is in equilibrium with the surrounding melt.

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Summary The thermal behavior of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy. For amorphous PLLA samples, double cold crystallisation peaks were observed in the DSC traces during heating process, being strongly dependent on heating rates. The observation was discussed based on the assumption that the quenched PLLA sample presented some remaining metastable or a precrystalline phase. A small exothermal peak was observed before the main melting peak at low heating rates. The probable reason was discussed through melt-recrystallisation mechanism. Influence of thermal history on the cold crystallisation and melting behavior was also performed on heating process for PLLA samples.

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Abstract  

This article had studied the thermal characterization of the raw material and different fluconazole crystals, obtained through recrystallization with different solvents using thermoanalytical techniques (TG, DTA, DSC-50, DSC Photovisual, DSC-60) and Pyr-GC/MS. The results confirmed that the fluconazole volatilizes without decomposition until 250 °C. Pyr-GC/MS showed hexachlorobenzene like impurities in fluconazole raw material.

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Abstract  

The crystallisation kinetics, melting behaviour and morphology, of bacterial poly(3-hydoxybutyrate) (PHB) have been investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), step-scan DSC (SDSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) and hot stage polarised optical microscopy (HSPOM). DSC imparted isothermal crystallisation thermal history. The subsequent melting behaviour revealed that all PHB materials experienced secondary crystallisation during heating and the extent of secondary crystallisation varied depending on the crystallisation temperature. PHB samples were found to exhibit double melting behaviour due to melting of SDSC scan-induced secondary crystals, while considerable secondary crystallisation or annealing took place under the modulated heating conditions. The overall melting behaviour was rationalised in terms of recrystallisation and/or annealing of crystals. Interestingly, the PHB materials analysed by SDSC showed a broad exotherm before the melting peak in the non-reversing curve and a multiple melting peak reversing curve, verifying that the melting-recrystallisation and remelting process was operative. HSOM studies supported the conclusions from DSC that the radial growth rate of the PHB spherulites was significantly varied upon the crystallisation conditions. One form of crystals was shown by WAXRD from isothermally crystallised PHB.

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Abstract  

The nucleating efficiency and selectivity of different β-nucleating agents was characterised and compared by differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC) and temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC). The nucleating agents were the calcium salts of pimelic and suberic acid (Ca-pim and Ca-sub), linear trans-γ-quinacridone (LTQ), a commercial nucleator NJ Star (NJS) and an experimental product (CGX-220). The efficiency and the selectivity of Ca-sub and Ca-pim are extremely high. NJS is efficient above a critical concentration, which is connected with its partial dissolution in polypropylene melt. LTQ and CGX-220 possess strong overall nucleating ability and moderate selectivity. Using TMDSC, we found that three consecutive processes take place during the heating of β-nucleated samples cooled down to room temperature: reversible partial melting of the β-form, irreversible βα-recrystallisation, and the melting of the α-modification formed during βα-recrystallisation or being present in samples prepared with non-selective β-nucleators. Melting of the α-phase contains both reversible and irreversible components.

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Abstract

The infrared spectrum of polycaprolactone has been recorded as a function of temperature in the range where melting and crystallisation of the polymer can occur. Examination of the carbonyl band of the spectra reveals a clear morphological sensitivity; heating the semi-crystalline polymer through the melting region results in a decrease in the intensity of the crystalline component of the carbonyl band. Accordingly, there was a subsequent increase in intensity of the crystalline carbonyl band on cooling. To enable comparison of these findings with a more conventional method of thermal analysis, similar experiments were conducted using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heated ATR accessory adopted for use in the FTIR spectrometer imposed significant limitations in the range of possible heating and cooling rates, but when these rates were carefully matched between FTIR and DSC, close correlation between the melting point and onset of re-crystallisation was observed. The results confirm that FTIR can be used as an alternative, if more laborious, way of investigating melting and re-crystallisation.

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peaks do not appear in the diffractograms. Trace amounts of spinel and cristobalite are obtained from thermal recrystallization. Quartz is present as an impurity in the Wyoming bentonite and after the amorphization of MONT its X-ray peak becomes very

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