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Analogy was a basic means of the interpretation of reality in late antique schools of philosophy, and among them in the Stoic philosophy, too. It was, at the same time, also a heuristic and didactic method. It played an important role in the philosophers’ activity of explaining the world, and in schoolbooks, like that of Cornutus, in giving a world-view. The analogical method served as a basis for the wellknown etymological explanations, too, and etymological explanation in turn played an important role in discovering the basic knowledge of the world, and in later times, it received a rhetoric justification among the common places of rhetoric. In this way it became part of rhetoric argumentation.

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In the article the manuscript of the first Arabic prose work is being investigated. The author comes to the conclusion that it was written originally in Greek by somebody who was attached to one of the rhetoric schools in Syria. The Greek work contains the alleged correspondence between Aristotle and Alexander the Great. The Greek version of the novel in letters must be dated back to the sixth century A.D., thus the work is one of the last documents of the classical Greek literature. Through this novel one can get a better insight into the activity of the schools of rhetoric in the late Antiquity and the question of Pseudo-Aristotle's treatises.

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ʿAmmār al-Baṣrī was an outstanding representative of the Nestorian theology in the Christian-Moslem disputes of the ninth century. As a Christian writer who knew both Greek and Syriac, he continued the traditions of the Eastern (Greek) church in every respect, including the way of presentation and argumentation. Relying on his example the author tries to point out that the Christian writers of the early Islamic centuries represented the traditional Greek rhetoric culture in Islamic surroundings.

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Maxims played an important role in the Greek tradition of rhetoric, and collections of maxims arranged alphabetically or according to subject-matter represent a well-established literary genre both in the field of belles-lettres and sciences. Collections of maxims served well-defined purposes: they were used in schools, or they were read by people who were interested in wisdom, but did not have the necessary p_r

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Lucanus epikus technikájának jellemző jegye az istenapparátus hiánya. A jelenség magyarázatára az utóbbi bő évszázadban számos magyarázat született. Egy részük nem annyira az istenapparátus hiányáról beszél, mint inkább arról, hogy a költő az epikus narratíva e transzcendens aspektusát a hagyományos istenek helyett a teljesen személytelen fatum mal s a hol filozófikusan (fortuna), hol mintegy istenségként felfogott Fortuná val helyettesíti. A modern elméletek már Lucanus költői látásmódjának újszerűségével magyarázzák a jelenséget. Az istenapparátus hiánya azonban csak egyike azon tüneteknek, melyeknek mindegyike jól magyarázható a szónoki munkamódszerrel, a retorikai narratio szabályainak követésével.

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Innovating knowledge communities

An analysis of group collaboration and competition in science and technology

Scientometrics
Authors: S. Upham, Lori Rosenkopf, and Lyle Ungar

Abstract  

A useful level of analysis for the study of innovation may be what we call “knowledge communities”—intellectually cohesive, organic inter-organizational forms. Formal organizations like firms are excellent at promoting cooperation, but knowledge communities are superior at fostering collaboration—the most important process in innovation. Rather than focusing on what encourages performance in formal organizations, we study what characteristics encourage aggregate superior performance in informal knowledge communities in computer science. Specifically, we explore the way knowledge communities both draw on past knowledge, as seen in citations, and use rhetoric, as found in writing, to seek a basis for differential success. We find that when using knowledge successful knowledge communities draw from a broad range of sources and are extremely flexible in changing and adapting. In marked contrast, when using rhetoric successful knowledge communities tend to use very similar vocabularies and language that does not move or adapt over time and is not unique or esoteric compared to the vocabulary of other communities. A better understanding of how inter-organizational collaborative network structures encourage innovation is important to understanding what drives innovation and how to promote it.

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-autonomous Organizations 2004 Verscheure, B. (2009): The Role of Public Agencies in the Policy Making Process. Rhetoric versus Reality

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There is a considerable discrepancy between official rhetoric and reality in the Hungarian higher education system. Based on a series of personal interviews conducted with the actors of Hungarian higher education, this article offers an analysis of the positions and strategies of the key players. Using the Matrix of Alliances and Conflicts: Tactics, Objectives and Recommendations (MACTOR) method, the actors of the higher education system are analysed in terms of direct and indirect reciprocal influences, and their positions with regard to a generic set of possible objectives. It is argued that there is an urgent need for concentrating resources and for re-defining the higher education strategy based on the long-term demands of a globalising world.

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The most influential author in Péguy's life was Victor Hugo. Péguy never really reproached Hugo for the stylistic faults he was often criticized for. Only when Péguy broke with his socialist friends did he become critical of the political side of Hugo's poetry. It was not because he did not share Hugo's ideas anymore, but because he thought that political rhetoric was insincere on Hugo's part, contrary to his genius, and harmful to beauty in poetry. According to Péguy, when Hugo listens to his genius and does not politicize, he is unsurmountable. If Hugo has his limits, it is just that, not being a Christian, but a genuine pagan, there are things in the human soul he was unable to perceive. Those are the things Péguy, after Corneille or Pascal, tried to express in his  late poetry.

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Abstract  

Year-on-year trends in research outputs show increases in research activity as the date of the research assessment exercise—in New Zealand the Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF)—looms. Moreover, changes with time in the number and types of conference presentation indicate that the vehicle of publication is also being influenced by the PBRF. Within New Zealand business schools, relating the published journal articles to the Australian Business Deans Council rankings list shows a trend towards more publications of lower rank, raising doubts about whether the rhetoric about the PBRF raising the quality of research is really justified. This ‘drive’ towards increasing numbers of research outputs is also fostered by an increasing trend towards co-authorship in publishing across all disciplines.

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