Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.
Authors:Animesh Sarkar, Tofazzal Islam, Gokul Biswas, Shohidul Alam, Mikail Hossain, and Nur Talukder
The objectives of the research were to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. BRRIdhan 29 cultivated in acidic soils of Tangail in Bangladesh and evaluate their performances in phosphate solubilization in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A total of 10 bacterial strains were isolated and purified by repeated streak culture on nutrient agar medium. Upon screening, five isolates (OS01, OS03, OS07, OS08 and OS10) showed varying levels of phosphate solubilizing activity in agar plate and broth assays. Among them, the strain OS07 (B1) and two previously isolated PSB strains B2 and B3 were selected for evaluation for their performances in rice alone or in combination of TSP (triple super phosphate: P1) and rock phosphate (P2). Plant height and the number of tillers per plant were significantly increased by all PSB isolates when used in combination with TSP but PSB alone did not influence much on plant height and the number of tillers except B1. The levels of mineral nutrients content in rice plant tissues were generally increased by the application of the PSB in combination with TSP, while the performances of B1 isolate was superior in all aspects to B2 and B3 isolates.
Authors:L. Ma, P. Xiao, J. Cai, X. Li, Z. Ji, Y. Xia, C. Yang, and J. Bao
Uniformity in the height of main stem and tillers is a key factor affecting ideal plant type, a key component in super high-yielding rice breeding. An understanding of the genetic basis of the panicle layer uniformity may thus contribute to breeding varieties with good plant type and high yield. In the present study, a doubled haploid (DH) population, derived from a cross between
rice variety Zhai-Ye-Qing 8 (ZYQ8) and
rice variety Jing-Xi 17 (JX17) was used to analyze quantitative trait loci (QTL) for panicle layer uniformity related traits. Six, four and three QTL were detected for the highest panicle height (HPH), lowest panicle height (LPH) and panicle layer dis-uniformity (PLD), respectively. qHPH-1-1 and qPLD-1 were located at the same interval on chromosome 1. The JX17 allele(s) of these QTL increased HPH and PLD by 2.57 and 1.26 cm, respectively. Similarly, qPLD-7 and qHPH-7 were located at the same interval on chromosome 7, where the ZYQ8 allele(s) increased HPH and PLD by 3.74 and 1.96 cm, respectively. These four QTL were unfavourable for panicle layer uniformity improvement because a decrease of the PLD was accompanied by decrease of the plant height. qPLD-6 and qLPH-6-1 were located at the same interval on chromosome 6, however here the JX17 allele(s) increased LPH, but decreased PLD, suggesting that this QTL was favourable for improvement of panicle layer uniformity. The markers identified in this study are potential for marker assisted breeding for the improvement of the panicle layer uniformity and ideal plant type.
Authors:M. Nedunchezhiyan, K. Laxminarayana, K. Rajasekhara Rao, and B. Satapathy
A field experiment was conducted at the Regional Centre of the Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Dumduma, Bhubaneswar for three consecutive years (2006–2008) under rainfed conditions on Alfisols to quantify the effects of strip intercropping on crop yields and yield components. A significantly higher yield was obtained from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) border rows when pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) was intercropped. Analyses of sweet potato yield components indicated that the number of roots/plant, root length and root diameter were significantly higher in border rows when rice (Oryza sativa L.), finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) and pigeonpea were used as intercrop compared to monoculture sweet potato. The number of tubers/plant of sweet potato in border rows was significantly lower when maize (Zea mays L.) was intercropped, but the root length and root diameter were found to increase compared to sole sweet potato. The yields of rice, finger millet, maize and pigeonpea in inside rows in strip cropping were a little higher than in monoculture. The yield difference was mainly due to an increase in the number of seeds/panicle or cob. Sweet potato was the dominant crop when grown with rice or finger millet, but it was the subordinate crop when grown along with maize or pigeonpea. Sweet potato yields were consistently higher in strip intercropping than in monoculture when calculated across all the strips on an equal area basis. A strip intercropping system involving sweet potato + pigeonpea resulted in a higher land equivalent ratio (1.31) and net return ( $623.9) compared to the other forms of intercropping and to monocropping.
Authors:Jerko Gunjaca, Zrinka Knezovic, and Marija Pecina
Asenjo C.A. — Bezus R. — Acciaresi H.A. (2003): Genotype-Environment interactions in rice (OryzasativaL.) in temperate region using the Joint Regression Analysis and AMMI methods — Cereal Res Commun 31: 97
Authors:M. Gholipoor, K. Ghasemi-Golezani, F. R. Khooie, and M. Moghaddam
growth, mineral nutrition and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in rice (OryzasativaL.) cultivars differing in salt resistance. Plant Growth Reg. , 19, 207-218.
Effects of salt stress on growth, mineral