Central Europe (Europe-Between, Zwischeneuropa) belonged to the sphere of German cultural influence. Western intellectual trends came also through German language areas either directly or indirectly by transmitting ideas (e.g.: the products of Renaissance intellectual trends or the ideas of the Enlightenment). At the same time the peoples of the region were also in direct connection with one another. In several cases the rulers of Hungary, Bohemia and Poland had been the members of the same dynasties but there were periods when personal union was the form of governance. The institutionally organised protection of the mother tongue, the establishment of national literature and science took place at different times and lasted from the beginning of the sixteenth century until the end of the nineteenth century, with the exception of the Czech language. This vision of cultural history is presented in this lecture by comparing the similarities and the differences in reading history of the region. The first examples are taken from the Protestant Reformation and its preceding Spiritual and Humanist movements. I will discuss the direct connections between Hungary and Livonia (through the two examples of the Hungarian translation and publication of Georg Ziegler’s book and the Hungarian students of the Papal Seminary of Riga) touching also upon the shared university studies of students from several nations of Europe-Between (in Bologna, Padova, Wittenberg, Heidelberg, Strasburg, etc.).
After a brief summary on the properties of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the course and latency stages of the infection, the characteristics of infectious mononucleosis (IM), and other disorders caused by this virus, as well as the course of the serological responses to EBV, the current paper focuses on the role of EBV in two autoimmune disorders: multiple sclerosis (MS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Diverse evidence suggests that infection by EBV during late childhood or young adulthood may have a role in the pathogenesis of MS. These include the similarity between the geographical distribution of IM and MS, the high risk of contracting MS by individuals who have recovered from IM, the elevation of the titers of IgG antibodies against EBV nuclear antigens occurring years before the initial manifestations of MS, and the extremely rare occurrence of MS in individuals seronegative for EBV. However, the data on the mechanism underlying the relationship between EBV and MS are controversial. Moreover, many observations indicate that EBV contributes also to the pathomechanism of SLE. However, this contribution differs from the relationship between EBV and MS, as shown by the lack of any increase in the risk of SLE after IM. In SLE, EBV serology is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the normal response — that is, EBV viral load is higher and a strong cross-reaction can be detected between certain EBV antigens and autoantigens of pathological importance. These observations, along with the findings pointing to a possible role of EBV in rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis indicate that infection by EBV may be one of the environmental factors, which can facilitate the development of some autoimmune disorders in genetically susceptible individuals.
Authors:Tom Magerman, Bart Van Looy, and Xiaoyan Song
In this study, we examine and validate the use of existing text mining techniques (based on the vector space model and latent
semantic indexing) to detect similarities between patent documents and scientific publications. Clearly, experts involved
in domain studies would benefit from techniques that allow similarity to be detected—and hence facilitate mapping, categorization
and classification efforts. In addition, given current debates on the relevance and appropriateness of academic patenting,
the ability to assess content-relatedness between sets of documents—in this case, patents and publications—might become relevant
and useful. We list several options available to arrive at content based similarity measures. Different options of a vector
space model and latent semantic indexing approach have been selected and applied to the publications and patents of a sample
of academic inventors (n = 6). We also validated the outcomes by using independently obtained validation scores of human raters. While we conclude
that text mining techniques can be valuable for detecting similarities between patents and publications, our findings also
indicate that the various options available to arrive at similarity measures vary considerably in terms of accuracy: some
generally accepted text mining options, like dimensionality reduction and LSA, do not yield the best results when working
with smaller document sets. Implications and directions for further research are discussed.
Authors:Sam-Wook Choi, Hyun Kim, Ga-Young Kim, Yeongju Jeon, Su Park, Jun-Young Lee, Hee Jung, Bo Sohn, Jung-Seok Choi, and Dai-Jin Kim
Leeman, R. F. & Potenza, M. N. (2012). Similarities and differences between pathological gambling and substance use disorders: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. Psychopharmacology (Berl) , 219 (2), 469
Authors:J. Poór, Zs. Karoliny, B. Musztyné Bártfai, Zs. Pótó, and F. Farkas
This paper seeks to address the similarities and differences between HR practices and policies of private and public sector organisations by reporting the results of our analysis based on the CRANET database. In our paper detailed statistical analysis is made for the three geographical subsets (New Public Management Countries, Eastern Europe, and All Other Countries) of the CRANET Survey 2004–2005. In light of CRANET data we review whether public sector reforms driven by radical structural changes, privatisation of certain government functions, or adaptation of New Public Management technologies could have or could not have eliminated the most important distinguishing features of public and private sector organisations in the field of HRM.
In a basic problem of geodesy the directions from points with known coordinates to an unknown (new) point are measured, and then the resulting angles are used to compute the coordinates of the new point. The relations between angles and lengths lead to a system of nonlinear equations of the form
= 0 (
= 1, 2, 3), where each
is a second degree polynomial of the unknown distances
. Two different direct (non-iterative) solutions are discussed: one is based on the Sylvesterdeterminant of the resultant (this is a new result), the other on the Gröbner-bases. We show that in the general case both methods lead to the same equations in one variable and of fourth degree, but in a special case the equations obtained from Sylvester-determinant are of second degree. As a numerical example, three known points and an unknown point were selected in the city of Sopron. The required space angles were used to make the computations yielding the
X, Y, Z
coordinates of the unknown point.We show that the direct solution of the 2D similarity transformation leads to the same result as applying the Gröbner-bases.
Authors:A. Torbica, D. Horvat, D. Živančev, M. Belović, G. Šimić, D. Magdić, N. Đukić, and K. Dvojković
The aim of this study was to compare efficiency of RP-HPLC (Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) and LOC (Lab-on-Chip) methods for wheat gluten protein quantification regarding clustering of wheat cultivars according to the genetic similarity (HMW-GS combinations), as well as to explore relations of these two methods to wheat quality parameters. For that purpose, wheat quality parameters (protein content, falling number, wet gluten content, gluten index, Farinograph, Extensograph, and Amylograph), as well as amounts of gliadin and glutenin fractions by RP-HPLC and LOC methods were determined in two different sets of wheat cultivars (Croatian and Serbian). The percentages of gluten proteins and the values of quality parameters were used to characterize the samples by principal component analysis (PCA). Gluten protein quantification performed by method based on the protein fraction separation by molecular weights (LOC) was better for grouping of genetically similar wheat cultivars than quantification of proteins separated by their different solubility in specified solvent gradient (RP-HPLC). LOC method showed higher potential in wheat quality prediction.
Authors:Alina Pyka-Pająk, Małgorzata Dołowy, and Katarzyna Bober
The aim of the work was the chromatographic separation of salicylic acid and their derivatives, i.e., acetylsalicylic acid, salicylanilide, salicylaldehyde, salicylamide, methyl salicylate, phenyl salicylate, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 3-aminosalicylic acid, 4-aminosalicylic acid, and 5-aminosalicylic acid by use of adsorption thin-layer chromatography (normal-phase thin-layer chromatography [NPTLC]) and partition thin-layer chromatography (reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography/high-performance thin-layer chromatography [RP-TLC/HPTLC]). Three qualitatively and quantitatively different mobile phases were used for the separation of salicylic acid and its derivatives. Cluster analysis (single linkage method, Euclidean distance) allowed the evaluation of the suitability of the chromatographic conditions used to separate the pairs of tested compounds. The cluster analysis data indicate that the composition of the mobile phase is fundamental in the process of separation of the analyzed compounds by use of NP-TLC. The best separation of the studied substances was observed in the case of mobile phase n-hexane—diethyl ether—acetic acid (80%) in different volume ratios. The similarity analysis of the results obtained by use of RP-TLC/HPTLC revealed that the type of chromatographic plates influences significantly the quality of separation of the tested compounds. The best conditions for the separation by RP-TLC were obtained on silica gel RP-18 F254 plates. The present study indicates that the cluster analysis represents a simple-to-use and powerful chemometric tool in the prediction of TLC separation of medically important salicylic acid derivatives under various chromatographic conditions. It can be helpful in the quality control of multicomponent synthetic preparations containing these compounds or in the chemical standardization of plant products consisting of salicylic acid and related compounds.