Authors:Estera Páldyová, E. Bereczki, M. Sántha, T. Wenger, Anna Borsodi, and S. Benyhe
Numerous studies have shown functional links between the cannabinoid and opioid systems. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether acute treatments by endogenous cannabinoid agonist, selective CB
receptor antagonists modulate the expression of μ-(MOR) and δ-(DOR) opioid receptor mRNA levels and functional activity in the cerebellum of transgenic mice deficient in the CB
type of cannabis receptors. We examined the effect of noladin ether (endogenous cannabinoid agonist) pretreatment on MOR and DOR mRNA expression by using reverse transcription and real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) and the ability of subsequent application of the opioid agonists to activate G-proteins, as measured by [
S]GTPγS binding, in wild-type (CB
) and CB
cannabinoid receptor deficient (CB
, ‘knockout’, K.O.) mice. The acute administration of noladin ether markedly reduced MOR-mediated G-protein activation and caused a significant increase in the level of MOR mRNAs in the cerebella of wild-type, but not in the CB
mice. No significant differences were observed in DOR functional activity and mRNA expression in wild-type animals. In CB
mice the expression of DOR mRNA increased after noladin ether treatment, but no changes were found in DOR functional activity. In addition, Rimonabant (selective central cannabinoid CB
receptor antagonist) and SR144528 (selective peripheral cannabinoid CB
receptor antagonist) caused significant potentiation in MOR functional activity in the wild-type animals, whereas DOR mediated G-protein activation was increased in the CB
mice. In contrast, Rimonabant and SR144528 decreased the MOR and DOR mRNA expressions in both CB
mice. Taken together, these results indicate that acute treatment with cannabinoids causes alterations in MOR and DOR mRNA expression and functional activity in the cerebella of wild-type and CB
knockout mice indicating indirect interactions between these two signaling systems.
Castration of the catfish Clarias batrachus in late preparatory-early prespawning phase (April&May) caused time-dependent stimulatory effect on morphology, weight, and in the concentrations of biochem- ical correlates, such as total proteins, fructose, hexosamines and sialic acid in the seminal vesicle (SV). The peak changes were noticed on week 4 of castration. The hyperactivity was related to augmented pro- duction of testosterone by the SV of castrates with the levels significantly high from week 3 onwards. As a result, serum testosterone level fluctuated with a significant decrease in the first and fifth weeks, a sig- nificant increase in the third week, and no significant difference in the second and fourth weeks. Serum E2 level decreased significantly throughout. Cyproterone acetate treatment (CA; 1 mg/fish daily for 21 days) from the second day of castration decreased the size and weight of the SV and the concentrations of total proteins, hexosamines, fructose and sialic acid. The antiandrogen treatment did not alter serum testosterone level but the E2 level was significantly decreased. It is concluded that the hypersecretory activity of the SV in castrates is a sequel to local synthesis and action of testosterone and the effect could be prevented by CA by blocking androgen actions.
Authors:Henrietta Papp, P. Jr. Kása, Magdolna Pákáski, L. Baláspiri, and P. Sr. Kása
The neurotoxic effect of amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) was investigated in cultures of neuronal tissue derived from the basal forebrain of embryonic rat. The axonal varicosities of the cholinergic cells were revealed by vesicular acetylcholine transporter staining, and the axonal varicosities in general by synaptophysin immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that the treatment of in vitro neuronal cultures with 20 mM amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) for 2 days on day 5, 12 or 15 exerted a neurotoxic effect on both the cholinergic and the non-cholinergic neurons. In the same cultures, the absolute number of synaptophysin-positive axon varicosities was reduced to greater extent (control: 203 ± 37/field vs treated: 101 ± 16/field) than the number of vesicular acetylcholine transporter-immunoreactive (control: 48 ± 4/field vs treated: 0/field) structures. It is concluded that amyloid-beta peptide (1-42) does not have a specific effect only on the cholinergic neurons, but affects non-cholinergic neurons as well.
Authors:V. Kakade, A. Dubey, O. Awasthi, and A. Dahuja
Still, J. R., Pill, W. G. (2004): Growth and stress tolerance of tomato seedlings ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in response to seed treatment with paclobutrazol. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotechnol. , 79 , 197
treatment. Abstracts of the 27
ISTA Congress Seed Symposium, May 17
, Budapest, Hungary. p. 48.
Hampton J.G. — TeKrony D.M.: 1995. Handbook of vigour test methods. International Seed Testing
., Ismail, A. M., Azzoz, M. M. 2001: Protein patterns in germinating seeds of Vicia faba lines in response to interactive effects of salinity and vitamin treatments. Phyton , 41 , 79-110.
Protein patterns in germinating seeds of
Authors:Markus M. Heimesaat, Andreas Kupz, André Fischer, Dietrich H. Nies, Gregor Grass, Ulf B. Göbel, and Stefan Bereswill
Escherichia coli K12 (EcK12) is commonly used for gene technology purposes and regarded as a security strain due to its inability to adhere to epithelial cells. The conventional intestinal microbiota composition is critical for physiological colonization resistance against most bacterial species including pathogens. We were therefore interested whether intestinal colonization by a genetically modified EcK12 (W3110) strain carrying a chloramphenicol resistance cassette was facilitated following broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment eradicating the intestinal microbiota or induction of small intestinal inflammation accompanied by distinct microbiota shifts. Whereas conventional C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice had virtually expelled the EcK12 (W3110) strain within the first 3 days upon peroral infection, EcK12 (W3110) could establish within the small and large intestines of gnotobiotic mice generated by quintuple antibiotic treatment. Gnotobiotic mice perorally infected with EcK12 (W3110) plus fecal transplant from conventional donors harbored lower intestinal EcK12 (W3110) loads compared to animals challenged with EcK12 (W3110) alone. Furthermore, EcK12 (W3110) infection of conventional mice after but not before induction of ileitis resulted in stable colonization of ileum and colon by EcK12 (W3110). Taken together, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and intestinal inflammation compromise colonization resistance and thus facilitate colonization of the intestinal tract with genetically modified EcK12 security strains.
Authors:Tünde Pusztahelyi, L. Radócz, Cs. Gellért, Szilvia Kovács, Zsuzsanna Szabó, I. Pócsi, and A. Vad
There are extensive data on effects of antifungal agents on the plant pathogens, especially on Fusariums spp. species. However, investigations on the interaction of chemicals and the treated cultivars are rare. The aim of the study was to test two types of fungicide mixtures, azoxystrobin-propiconazole, and prothioconazole-tebuconazole, which are applied in wheat cultivars intensively, on six fodder maize hybrids that were infected with Fusarium proliferatum in the R1 growth stage in a field trial. The effect of the fungicide treatment was tested on the starch content and antifungal, antioxidant polyphenols of the kernels in the R3–R4 and R6 stage of the cultivars. The level of the fungal presence and the fumonisin concentration of the kernels were increased significantly under the artificial infection. The fumonisin concentration was variable at the R6 stage of the hybrid maize kernels. The treatment with prothioconazole and tebuconazole was found to be suitable when it was done before flowering, while the azoxystrobin-propiconazole treatments were equally successful before and after maize flowering considering the decreasing fumonisin concentration of the kernels. Both fungicide mixtures, when they were applied after maize flowering, affected the starch biosynthesis to the R3–R4 stage significantly. Meanwhile, azoxystrobin-propiconazole also significantly affected the antioxidant flavone/flavanol contents from the R3–R4 stage to the R6 stage.
Authors:Bronislava Butkutė, Audronė Mankevičienė, and Irena Gaurilčikienė
Field experiments were conducted over 3 years to assess the effects of fungicides (F) containing strobilurins (alone and in mixture with morpholine, triazoles) and triazoles (epoxiconazole or propiconazole) on winter wheat ‘Zentos’ grain quality, incidence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in the field, grain contamination with fungi and mycotoxins. The effect of strobilurins and triazoles on the parameters tested was more dependent on the weather conditions of the growing season than on the F applied. The incidence of FHB was low in 2002 and 2003, but high in 2004. Averaged data suggest that strobilurin treatments decreased the level of FHB. In 2002, grain contamination with fungi was lower than in 2003 and 2004. The data on the impact of fungicides on post-harvest grain infection with Fusarium spp. and contamination with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 were controversial. The fungicides only insignificantly affected protein and gluten concentration in grain, as well as sedimentation and falling number. All grain quality components were especially dependent on the year (significant at P<0.01). However, fungicide application significantly, at P<0.01, increased grain protein and gluten yields: they were higher for the strobilurin-treated plots (with a small exception) than for the untreated and those treated with propiconazole.