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119 124 Maich, R.H., Chaves, A.G., Coraglio, M.C., Costero, B., Torres, L.E. 2006. Agronomic performance of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and hexaploid triticale

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, T., Buśko, M., Cichy, H., Jackowiak, H., Perkowski, J. 2002. Resistance of winter triticale lines and cultivars to Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in kernels. J. Appl. Genet. 43A :237

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progress in triticale and bread wheat. In: Proc. 5 th Int. Triticale Symp. E. Arseniuk (ed). Vol. I: 37–40. Sharma, R. C. & E. Duveiller. 2003. Selection index for improving helminthosporium leaf

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97 108 Márton L., 2002a. A csapadék és a tápanyagellátottság hatásának vizsgálata a triticale termésére tartamísérletben. Növénytermelés. 51 . 687

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Az MTA ATK TAKI Őrbottyáni Kísérleti Telepén karbonátos homoktalajon beállított NPK műtrágyázási tartamkísérlet 36–43. évében, 2006 és 2013 között vizsgáltuk a műtrágyázás hatását a tritikále fejlődésére, termésére és elemfelvételére. A termőhely talaja a főbb tápelemekben (N, P, K) gyengén ellátott, a szántott réteg 1% körüli CaCO3-ot és 1% humuszt tartalmaz. Az altalaj erősen karbonátos, az agyagos rész 5–10%. A talajvíz 8–10 m mélyen található, a terület aszályérzékeny. Évente a P- (0, 60, 120 kg P2O5·ha−1) és K-műtrágyákat (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 kg K2O·ha−1) ősszel szántás előtt, valamint a N (0, 80, 160 kg N·ha−1) felét ősszel, a másik felét tavasszal szórtuk ki 25%-os pétisó, 18%-os szuperfoszfát és 50%-os kálisó formájában. A kísérletből levonható főbb tanulságok:

  1. Talajgazdagító PK-műtrágyázás eredményeképpen a kontrolltalaj igen gyenge PK-ellátottsága a kielégítő 150–200 mg·kg−1 NH4-acetát+EDTA-oldható tartományba emelkedett a kísérlet 41. évében (2011-ben). A szuperfoszfáttal végzett trágyázás eredményeképpen igazolhatóan nőtt a feltalaj oldható S- és Sr-tartalma, mely az alkalmazott hazai Kóla-alapú/nyersanyagú eredetre vezethető vissza. A hazai szuperfoszfátok 18–22% körüli elemi Ca-, 13% S-, 7–8% P-, 1–2% Srkészlettel rendelkeztek.
  2. Nemcsak a homoktalaj rendkívül heterogén, hanem a rajta fejlődő termés mennyisége is extrém szórásokat mutatott. Az évek és kezelések között egy nagyságrendet elérő különbségek adódtak. Az évek átlagait tekintve ötszörös eltéréseket tapasztaltunk. Az „évhatások” kifejezettek voltak. Termésdepresszió léphet fel egyaránt az aszály/vízhiány és a túlbő csapadék fennállása esetén.
  3. A P-kínálattal nőtt a növényi részek P-, Mn- és Sr-készlete, míg a beépült Znmennyiség visszaesett. Fellépett a P-Mn szinergizmus, illetve a P-Zn antagonizmus. A Mo-koncentráció a növekvő NPK-műtrágyázással a szalmában 1/3-ára, a szemtermésben a felére zuhant.
  4. A vizsgált nyolc év alapján még nem ítélhető meg, hogy a tritikále mennyire alkalmas a monokultúrás termesztésre, de összevetve a telepen 52 éves ún. „örökrozs” kísérletünkkel, ez lehetővé válhat a jövőben.

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Experiments conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2004–2005 were designed to investigate the contamination of winter rye cv. ‘Duoniai’ and triticale cv. ‘Tornado’ grain with fungi of genus Fusarium and mycotoxins produced by them as affected by the spray-applications of the crops with the fungicides propiconazole, tebuconazole, and azoxystrobin at the beginning of anthesis (BBCH 63). Having analysed winter rye and triticale grain samples for Fusarium species composition ( Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc, F. sporotrichioides Sherb., F. poae (Peck) Wollenw, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc., F. graminearum Schwabe, F. solani (Mart.) Sacc., F. incarnatum (Desm.) Sacc . F. sambucinum Fuckel) were identified in rye grain — ( F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc., F. poae (Peck) Wollenw., F. heterosporum Nees) — in triticale grain. The grain samples from winter rye plots sprayed with azoxystrobin were the most heavily affected by Fusarium (42.5%) and the highest contents of DON (691 μg kg −1 ) and T-2 toxin (153.6 μg kg −1 ) were identified in them. Tebuconazole reduced the amount of Fusarium -affected grain in rye and triticale, but did not have any effect on mycotoxin production in rye. The grain of triticale not sprayed with fungicides was more heavily contaminated with DON (427 μg kg −1 ).

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Aniol, A.: 2002. Environmental stress in cereals: an overview. Proceedings of 5 th International Triticale Symposium, Vol. 1., Poland. p. 111–121. Baier, A. C., Desousa, C. N., Wietholter S

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The role of the different genome combinations in a polyploid on phenotypic stability was analysed in wheat and triticale. Twelve genotypes with four genome combinations (AABB, AABBDD, AABBRR and AABBDDRR) were raised in eight artificially created environments. The data on grains per spike, 100-grain weight and grain yield per plant were recorded and analysed following the models of Perkins and Jinks (1968) and Eberhart and Russell (1966). The results revealed that in polyploid species the genes for stability were not uniformly distributed in different genomes. It was therefore inferred that stability may largely depend on the gene combination rather than on the genome combination.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: M. Mirosavljević, V. Momčilović, P. Čanak, D. Trkulja, S. Mikić, B. Jocković, and N. Pržulj

Knowledge about the comparative development and grain filling of winter cereals under different environmental conditions is important for stable and high yielding crop production. The objective of this work was to compare patterns of grain filling in bread wheat, barley and triticale grown in the Pannonian region, as well as to investigate relationships among grain filling parameters, time to anthesis and grain yield. The trials with 12 winter cereal genotypes were carried out in four successive seasons at the location Novi Sad, Serbia. Results of this study showed that all studied grain filling parameters were significantly influenced by species, cultivar, growing season, and species by growing season interaction. Longer duration of grain filling period and period to maximum grain filling were observed in triticale and wheat cultivars compared with six and two-rowed barley. Two-rowed barley cultivars had a higher grain filling rate than other cultivars. Furthermore, a negative association between time to anthesis and grain yield indicates that cultivars with the long preanthesis period are not recommended for the agro-ecological conditions of the Pannonian plain. Generally, medium early cultivars of small grain cereals had the highest grain weight within species and spike type, suggesting that medium early cultivars have a balanced ratio of pre-anthesis and grain filling period. High values of final grain weight in different growing seasons indicate that weather conditions in the Pannonian plain are mainly suitable for grain growth.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Bóna, N. Adányi, R. Farkas, E. Szanics, E. Szabó, Gy. Hajós, A. Pécsváradi, and E. Ács

Selenium (Se), a main antioxidant component in cereal grain, is essential for animals and human health reducing risk factors of many dangerous diseases. Over the past decades, intake of this trace element had dropped due to low Se content in large areas of European countries including Hungary. Se-rich, high-protein cereal products became a focus for both animal feed and human consumption. In the study, we examined the following: i) grain Se concentration of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale ( Triticosecale Wittm.) intake to detect intra-and inter-genetic variations and ii) possible comparison relationship of this trace element to end product integrity, quality and relevant technological aspects. Se content of the whole meal grain was tested via atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Despite generally poor Se soil content of the experimental area where samples were collected, significant differences were found for both species. In general, triticale contained higher Se concentration than wheat did. Spring type cereals had significantly higher grain Se and protein concentration than those of winter ones. Grain Se content showed positive correlation with magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese, tocopherol and crude protein concentration. Remarkable intra-specific variations were found in Se concentration, however in future, additional studies, methods and resources will be required for identifying ways of increasing Se content in cereal foodstuff and feed.

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