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glycopeptide resistance – vancomycin-resistant enterococci; for Enterobacteriaceae : third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, or ceftazidime) and carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem or doripenem, and ertapenem) resistance; and for Gram

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Milica Jovanović, Sofie M. van Dorp, Mitra Drakulović, Dubravka Papić, Sladjana Pavić, Snežana Jovanović, Aleksandar Lešić, Miloš Korać, Ivana Milošević, and Ed J. Kuijper

. difficile isolates were sent to the Reference Laboratory at Leiden for PCR ribotyping, detection of toxin genes ( tcdA and tcdB ) genes, as well as binary toxin genes ( ctdA and ctdB ). In vitro susceptibility to metronidazole, vancomycin

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The retention behavior of selected macrocyclic antibiotics (erythromycin, troleandomycin, tylosin, vancomycin, rifamycin B, and rifampicin) has been examined on LiChrospher Si 60 F 254s HPTLC plates as stationary phase. A wide range of mixtures of alcohols and ketones with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) in proportions from 0 to 100% ( v/v ) and with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in proportions from 0 to 50% ( v/v ) were used as mobile phases. Chromatographic retention data and a possible retention mechanism are discussed.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Kinga Mária Sulyok, László Makrai, Zsuzsanna Rónai, László Fodor, Szilárd Jánosi, and Miklós Gyuranecz

The susceptibility of 29 Bacillus anthracis strains, collected in Hungary between 1933 and 2014, was tested to 10 antibiotics with commercially available minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test strips. All strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, doxycycline, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, and vancomycin. Intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin and cefotaxime was detected in 17.2% (5/29) and 58.6% (17/29) of the strains, respectively. Correlations were not observed between the isolation date, location, host species, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility profile of strains.

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, D. O., Jochimsen, E., Murfitt, K. The impending apocalypse, the emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol; 18 , Suppl, P32. Abstract (1997). The impending apocalypse, the

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Ewa Dworniczek, Justyna Piwowarczyk, Jacek Bania, Beata Kowalska-Krochmal, Ewa Wałecka, Alicja Seniuk, Izabela Dolna, and Grażyna Gościniak

Enterococci, a complex group of facultative pathogens have become increasingly isolated in various hospital settings. They are considerable frequently cultured from traumatic and surgical wounds. We investigated 57 strains of the species E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. casseliflavus isolated from infected wounds. Their ability to produce virulence factors and their sensitivity to antibiotics were evaluated using phenotypic and genotyping methods. In the phenotype studies, significant portion of the isolates produced biofilm (66.7%) and gelatinase (36.8%). Nearly 30% of the strains expressed hemolytic properties. Only a few produced DNAse (15.8%) and lipase (7.0%). The genes esp, gelE, cylA, cylB, cylM and agg were detected in most of the isolates (38.6–87.7%). All the isolated enterococci were susceptible to vancomycin and were characterized by their low resistance to antibiotics, except aminoglycosides (HLR).

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In this study, two bacilli strains, namely TN51 and TN69, previously isolated from Thua Nao, a Thai traditional fermented soybean, were studied in terms of their phenotypic and biochemical properties. Initially, both strains were subjected to morphological determination and a series of biochemical tests. Both were Gram-positive, endosporeforming bacilli. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the identities of strains TN51 and TN69 were confirmed as Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus, respectively. In addition, these two strains were also assessed for their antibiogram profiles. It was found that both strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and vancomycin and resistant to ampicillin and intermediately susceptible to bacitracin.

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549 Louie, T. J., Miller, M. A., Mullane, K. M., et al.: Fidaxomicin versus Vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. N. Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364 , 422

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Reza Beigverdi, Fereshteh Jabalameli, Akbar Mirsalehian, Sedigheh Hantoushzadeh, Shahram Boroumandi, Morovat Taherikalani, and Mohammad Emaneini

Forty-one Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected from pregnant women at 35–37 weeks of gestation were analysed for their capsular types, antimicrobial resistance determinants, distribution of virulence factors and genetic relatedness using PCR and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (65.8%), followed by capsular type II (14.6%), Ib (7.3%), and V(4.9%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 97.6%, 24.4%, and 14.6% of isolates, respectively. The most common antimicrobial resistance gene was tetM found in 97.6% of the isolates followed by ermTR and ermB found in 12% and 7.3% of isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was hly (100%), followed by scpB (97.6%), bca (97.6%), rib (53.65%) and bac (4.9%). The insertion sequence IS1548 was found in 63.4% of isolates. By multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing, 30 different allelic profiles or MLVA types (MTs) were identified. The most frequent was the MT1 (5/41, 12.2%) and followed by MT2 (4/41, 9.75%). Our data revealed that population structure of these isolates is highly diverse and indicates different MLVA types.

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The distribution of 3497 Staphylococcus aureus strains according to methicillin resistance, specimens, departmental profession and antibiotic resistance patterns was analysed. The strains were cultured from the patients of the Clinical Center of Skopje, Macedonia, between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2004. The majority of the isolates was obtained from suppurated wounds (28.5%), nares (21%), intratracheal tubes (13%) and blood cultures (11.8%). Overall 1100 (31.4%) of the isolates was methicillin-resistant with 1 µg oxacillin disc. Of these 35.5%, 30.5% and 10.4% were cultured from wounds, intratracheal tubes and blood samples, respectively. The prevalence of MRSA strains was 78.6%, 75%, 44.2% and 37.3% in specimens of ICU, Coma Center, General Surgery and Haematology patients. There were extremely big differences in the frequency of MRSA between departments with particular specialisation. The 2397 MSSA isolates belonged to practically one antibiotic resistance pattern characterised with penicillin resistance and susceptibility to other antistaphylococcal drugs. The 1100 MRSA isolates distributed to four antibiotic resistance patterns on the basis of their resistance to oxacillin, penicillin, amoxicillin+clavulanic acid, azithromycin, clindamycin, amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim+sulphamethoxasole, vancomycin and teicoplanin. All the MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant but sensitive to glycopeptides.

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