Authors:Zsuzsanna Antal, L. Kredics, J. Pakarinen, Ilona Dóczi, Maria Andersson, Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen, L. Manczinger, A. Szekeres, L. Hatvani, C. Vágvölgyi, and Elisabeth Nagy
Potential virulence factors of 9 saprophytic and 12 clinical Trichoderma longibrachiatum strains were examined in the present study, in order to compare their capacity to cause infection in humans. All of the strains were able to grow at temperatures up to 40 °C and at pH values ranging from 2.0 to 9.0. Carbon and nitrogen source utilization experiments revealed that all of the strains were able to utilize a series of basic amino acids both as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. The MIC values of the tested antifungal drugs were found to be 0.016-8 µg/ml for amphotericin B, 64-256 µg/ml for fluconazole, 0.5-32 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.008-1 µg/ml for ketoconazole in the case of the examinedis olates. Metabolites of the strains inhibited the growth of different bacteria, furthermore, compounds produced by three clinical isolates reduced the motility of boar spermatozoa, indicating their toxicity to mammalian cells as well. On the whole, there were no significant differences in the examined features between strains derived from clinical or soil samples. The question, however, whether all environmental Trichoderma longibrachiatum strains have the capacity to cause infections or not, remains still unanswered.
Authors:Hagen Frickmann, Andreas Hahn, Stefan Berlec, Johannes Ulrich, Moritz Jansson, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Philipp Warnke, and Andreas Podbielski
–Valentine leukocidin, and bi-component pore-forming toxins are prominent virulence factors that have been associated with skin and soft tissue infections due to S. aureus [ 51 – 54 ]. Admittedly, molecular screening for virulence factors was beyond the scope of this
Authors:Laila Ben Said, Ahlem Jouini, Ismail Fliss, Carmen Torres, and Naouel Klibi
, J. , Molina-González , D. , Poeta , P. , Igrejas , G. , Alonso-Calleja , C. and Capita , R. ( 2016 ): Antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci from wild game meat in Spain . Food. Microbiol. 53 , 156 – 164
Authors:Manja Boehm, Judith Lind, Steffen Backert, and Nicole Tegtmeyer
, Schmiel DH, Miller VL: A new pathway for the secretion of virulence factors by bacteria: the flagellar export apparatus functions as a protein-secretion system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 6456–6461 (1999)
Authors:Manja Boehm, Daniel Simson, Ulrike Escher, Anna-Maria Schmidt, Stefan Bereswill, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert, and Markus M. Heimesaat
–Barré syndromes [ 10 , 18 , 19 ].
Multiple efforts to unravel the molecular mechanisms of C. jejuni virulence have identified a number of bacterial factors that have a role in the pathogenesis of this organism, but their exact activities and interplay
Authors:Reza Ranjbar, Masomeh Bolandian, and Payam Behzadi
the virulence potential of Shigella species are the considerable risk factors that predispose the infection of shigellosis among different geographic populations. [ 1–3 , 5 , 11–14 ].
The invasive infection of shigellosis is demonstrated
Authors:Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe, Suman Choudhary, Peter Schierack, Lothar H. Wieler, Olufunmilola Bamidele Makanjuola, Albert B. Olayemi, and Muna Anjum
Detection in Escherichia coli of the genes encoding the major virulence factors, the genes defining the O157:H7 serotype, and components of the type 2 Shiga toxin family by multiplex PCR
J Clin Microbiol