Authors:Stefania Iwańska, Danuta Strusińska, and W. Zalewski
When evaluating the effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae1026) supplied with or without a vitamin premix and mineral bioplexes on some intermediates and end-products involved in the synthesis of milk constituents in 30 early-lactation Black and White Lowland cows, no significant differences were found in the glucose level, mineral contents and enzyme activities of the blood serum. The effect of yeast culture on the availability of minerals for milk synthesis depended upon the dynamics of degradation of mineral bioplexes in the rumen and the cows' mineral status. The insignificant increase found in blood total protein content and the simultaneous small differences in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) values in cows supplied with the yeast culture were probably associated with a high ammonia incorporation into microbial protein in the rumen, which increased protein supply for milk protein synthesis and decreased the nitrogen loss.
In the present study a method using enriched stable isotope tracer and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was developed to study the dynamic distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in a variety of organs and tissues of Wistar rats. Stable isotopes 152Sm and 168Yb were selected as tracers for the experiment. Intravenously injected 152Sm and 168Yb in chloride form could be quickly absorbed and distributed in almost all the organs and tissues of interest, including liver, skeleton, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, testicle, and blood serum. Liver and skeleton had high ability to take up 152Sm and 168Yb under the experimental conditions, whereas the contents of the elements in other organs were generally lower than 2% of the given dose during the whole experimental period. The difference in distribution of 152Sm and 168Yb in the body was also discussed.
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been employed to study the thermal denaturation processes of the main protein
fractions of blood serum. These processes have been compared for albumins (nondefatted (HSA) and fatty acid free (HSAf)),
α,β-globulins, γ-globulins, and their mixtures in aqueous (pH 6.5) and buffer (pH 7.2) solutions. The results have indicated
that α,β-globulins inhibit γ-globulins’ aggregation in buffer solutions. The decrease of stability of HSA and HSAf aqueous
solutions has been observed in the presence of γ-globulins. The mixtures of albumins and γ-globulins have revealed the tendency
to ready aggregation in water. Moreover, the results have suggested that neither γ-globulins nor albumins severely change
the stability of α,β-globulins.
Authors:Márta Erdélyi, M. Mézes, and Györgyi Virág
Glutathione peroxidase enzyme superfamily plays significant role in the elimination of reactive oxygen free radicals in the animals. Many characteristics of these proteins have been revealed already, but their regulation is still not known. Several data suggest that some environmental factors have certain regulatory effect, while others propose strict genetic regulation.In this report we present four different environmental induction models in which New Zealand white rabbits were used as experimental animals. In three models, free radical load of different origin, lipidperoxide load, application of a glutathione depletor or a prooxidant agent, was introduced. Beside these negative models a positive model was also constructed in which additive selenium was supplied.Glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in blood serum, erythrocyte haemolysate and liver. Reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde concentration in the liver were also determined.According to the results, the established models are capable for analysing the enzyme activity´environmental interactions.
A method for determining Human FSH in blood/serum by RIA is described. The radioiodination of FSH with125I is carried out under carefully controlled conditions such as, amount of initial activity of125I take for iodination, the reaction volume, and the reaction time, etc. The tracer FSH obtained thus is with minimum damage and optimum specific activity which is ideally suited for RIA. The shelf-life of the tracer is enhanced by the addition of benzyl alchol. The tracer can be conveniently stored at+4–6°C upto 10 weeks, avoiding the repeated freezing and thawing process. Antiserum to FSH is raised in rabbits by repeated injections via intramuscular route. The method utilizes polyethylene glycol /PEG/ as the separation system. Using this method, a number of control samples of men and women of reproductive age group are screened. This sensitive assay has a good validity and has an inter-assay variation less than 15%.
Gel filtration and neutron activation analysis methods were combined in work aimed at the development of methods for the determination
of metals firmly bound to protein in human blood serum. The values obtained are semiquantative. A purely instrumental technique
afforded data on Cu, Fe, Zn, Al and Mn but values for the latter two only were determined since Cu, Fe and Zn are already
well known. The concentrations for Al and Mn were found to be 300 ppb and 0.4 ppb, respectively. Despite the high resolution
of Ge(Li) detectors, no other metals were found. For the determination of any others, radiochemical separations are necessary
and were used to obtain data on the following elements: As 3 ppb, Ag 3 ppb, Au 0.003 ppb, Cr 1 ppb, Sb 1 ppb, Co, Cd, Mo and
Sn could not be detected and upper limits were estimated to be 0.1 ppb, 2 ppb, 2 ppb, and 1 ppb, respectively.
A radioimmunoanalytical (RIA) method was elaborated for the determination of ferritin in human blood serum in clinical practice. Placental ferritin separated from the human after-delivery placental and antibodies against the human placental ferritin obtained by the immunization of rabbits with this antigen were used. The whole complex of basic conditions and parameters of the RIA method was tested including the estimation of the region of normal values and clinical tests. The method elaborated was compared with the commercial kit Ferritin RIA Amersham, code IM 1051, chosen as reference kit. The results of the determination of control parameters as well as ferritin levels obtained by the method elaborated exert good agreement with the reference kit and correspond to requirements for routine RIA practice.
Authors:Sakine Yalçin, A. Ergün, Handan Erol, Suzan Yalçin, and B. Özsoy
This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of using L-carnitine and humate alone or in combination in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 280 Japanese quails aged 10 weeks, divided into one control group and three treatment groups, were used. The diets of the first, second and third treatment groups were supplemented with 100 mg L-carnitine/kg, 1.5 g humate (Farmagülatör® Dry Plus)/kg and 100 mg L-carnitine + 1.5 g humate/kg, respectively. The experimental period lasted 16 weeks. The addition of L-carnitine and sodium humate alone or in combination did not significantly affect body weight, feed consumption, egg production, feed conversion ratio, mortality, egg-shell thickness, egg yolk index and the percentages of egg-shell, albumen and yolk. Egg weight increased (P < 0.001) with L-carnitine supplementation. The values of egg albumen height (P < 0.05), egg albumen index (P < 0.01) and egg Haugh unit (P < 0.05) were increased with humate supplementation. Egg cholesterol content and blood serum parameters were not affected by the supplementation of L-carnitine with or without humate. The results in this study demonstrated that L-carnitine supplementation increased egg weight while humate addition increased egg albumen index and egg Haugh unit of laying quails. However, the combined administration of L-carnitine and humate did not have any significant effects on the parameters measured.
Authors:A. Szabó, M. Mézes, P. Horn, Z. Sütő, Gy. Bázár, and R. Romvári
Blood serum clinical biochemical parameters of fasted BUT Big 8 male turkeys were determined at the ages of 3 days, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks, for a follow-up of the developmental changes of some serum metabolites, enzymes and ions. The serum protein content (total protein, albumin, globulin) increased with age, indicating also the moulting-associated metabolic changes in the age interval from the 8th to the 12th weeks. Creatinine was shown to have a peak at 3 days of age (role of muscle activity in thermogenesis), while urate concentration sensitively reflected the dietary protein amount. Serum triglycerides peaked at the time of yolk catabolism, while cholesterol was shown to indicate the moulting, as was serum malondialdehyde. Serum sodium content increased throughout the study. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased along the ontogeny, while alkaline phosphatase activity decreased in parallel with the growth. Serum creatine kinase activity showed an over one-magnitude increase. General metabolic and enzymatic alterations were characteristic and applicable for the description of the ontogenetic development of a precocial (post-hatch triglyceride peak), large bodied, meat-type (lactate dehydrogenase, continuously increasing creatine kinase) bird species.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium on Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata) based on hatching results and the activity of enzymes in the blood plasma. On day 6 of incubation, hatching eggs were injected into the egg albumen with 50 μl of saline solution containing Cd ions (CdCl2) at concentrations of 0 (control group), 1.3, 4.0, 7.5, 15.0 and 30 μg/egg, using 50 eggs per group. A gradual decrease in hatchability, from 52% in the control to 4% in the highest Cd dose group, was observed, with the LD50 calculated as 8 μg/egg. However, the impact of cadmium on the incidence of malformations of duck embryos has not been proven. Compared to the control group, N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase activity increased by 30–50% (P ≤ 0.05) in the blood serum of ducklings in the groups receiving more than 7.5 μg Cd/egg, whereas an elevated activity of arylsulphatase (by 45%) was observed for a lower dose only (4 μg Cd/egg). A gradual increase in the activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases was observed (P ≤ 0.05), starting from the lowest exposure of 1.3 μg Cd/egg, by 155% and 53%, respectively. In conclusion, the results prove the dosedependent toxic impact of cadmium on embryogenesis and on the studied blood plasma enzyme activities of ducklings.