Authors:G. Arana, U. Wätjen, C. Ingelbrecht, and P. Robouch
Five copper alloys were prepared with modern powder metallurgical processes in the frame of the European project Improvement of Means of Measurement on Archaeological Copper-Alloys for Characterisation and Conservation (IMMACO) and certified for As, Pb, Sn and Zn mass fractions. Similar in their composition to archaeological bronze alloys, these Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are to be used for calibration of XRF instruments for characterization of archaeological samples either in the laboratory or in the field. This paper presents and compares the successful contribution of our non-destructive analytical methods (k0-NAA and PIXE) to the IMMACO project and to the certification of the five reference materials.
Authors:N. Gras, L. Munoz, M. Thieck, and S. Hurtado
Levels of essential and toxic trace elements in six marine species greatly in demand in the international market (canned pink clams, razor clams, clams, king crab, sardines, and frozen albacore tuna fish) were studied. A special laboratory adequately equipped for handling and preparing biological materials, is described. The elements As, Br, Na, Se, Hg, Cr, Fe, Zn and Rb were determined by INAA, while copper and cadmium content were determined using RNAA. Significant differences were found on comparing the contents of some toxic elements in mollusk and other samples of marine food. Various certified reference materials (CRMs) of the IAEA, NIST and NIES were analyzed for quality assurance purposes.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine selenium concentrations in several marine organisms including two certified reference materials /NRCC lobster hepatopancreas, NBS oyster tissue/ and one uncertified material /IAEA fish homogenate/. The76Se/n, /77mSe/T=17.4 s/ reaction was successfully employed to achieve an overall precision between 3–10% and detection limits between 0.3–0.6 g/g. The accuracy of the results, as compared to the certified values, was in excellent agreement with the NBS material and only slightly lower /9%/ for the NRCC material.
Authors:M. Saiki, N. M. Sumita, O. Jaluul, I. F. Sobreiro, W. Jacob Filho, and M. B. A. Vasconcellos
In this study a protocol for blood serum analysis was defined and the concentrations for Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn
were obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Blood samples were collected from healthy elderly volunteers who
were selected based on the SENIEUR protocol. Contamination of blood by the collection procedure was also evaluated and found
negligible. The serum was separated by centrifugation, then freeze-dried and analyzed. Most of results obtained were within
the acceptable value ranges used by physicians for normal population. The certified reference material, NIST SRM 1566b Oyster
Tissue was analyzed for quality control.
The advantages and drawbacks of using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for soil, sediment, plant and water pollution studies are discussed. The experimental procedures used for each method and for each type of sample matrix are described. They were tested on several certified reference materials. The results obtained on these materials showed good agreement for many elements for which the two techniques are suited, and they were complementary for the other elements which are also of environmental interest. An element-by-element assessment is presented to indicate the precautions to be taken and the most convenient technique for each of them.
A simple procedure for the determination of90Sr in environmental samples is described. The method uses the different solubilities of the oxalates of calcium and strontium in presence of a large excess of calcium. For this reason the method is especially suited for Ca-rich samples, as e.g., bones or soils. However, after addition of supplementary calcium it works equally well for other types of samples. The method was tested by analyzing the IAEA Certified Reference Materials soil, animal bone and algae.
Authors:Xiongxin Dai, Zhifang Chai, Xueying Mao, and Hong Ouyang
The Ir, Au and Pd concentrations in three certified reference materials SARM-7, FC-1 and DZ-1 were determined by neutron activation analysis using -amino pyridine preconcentration. Good agreement between the reference values and our results was obtained, and the reliability of our method was confirmed. This method is suitable for ppb or sub-ppb levels of Ir and Au analyses in environmental and geological samples. The Ir and Au levels in a Chinese coastal sediment GBW07314 were also analyzed.
Authors:Zs. Szántó, M. Hult, U. Wätjen, and T. Altzitzoglou
The paper presents the results of radiological investigation of several mushroom samples collected in the fall of 2004 in
different parts of Europe. The work was performed in order to support decision making to develop and produce a certified reference
material for quality assurance of radionuclide measurements in environmental samples. The levels of 137Cs in mushrooms varied widely ranging from 0.6 to 4300 Bq/kg on dry mass basis, while those of natural 40K were relatively constant. In one sample 60Co of unknown origin was detected (25±2 Bq/kg dry mass), while 90Sr concentrations were usually below the detection limit (<150 mBq/kg dry mass).
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to assess element concentrations in eleven samples of mineral
supplements/multivitamins acquired in drugstores and pharmacies in São Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr,
Cu, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn were determined. A comparison was made between the results obtained with the labels of the mineral
supplents. Certified reference materials, NIST SRM1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash were analyzed for quality
control of the analytical results.
Authors:P. Lam Ramos, D. Frías Fonseca, M. González Garcia, D. Aguiar Lambert, J. Estévez Alvarez, I. Pupo González, and D. López Sánchez
The objective of the present study was the elaboration of a procedure for the determination of Y, La, Ce, Pr and Nd in soils by spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III preceded by a separation-concentration stage, which includes coprecipitation and ion exchange. Multielement analysis by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (including Y, La, Ce and Nd) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry was carried out simultaneously in order to obtain a general characterization of the soil samples. Certified reference materials and statistical intercomparison of the obtained results were used to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. The precision was examined by analyzing replicate samples.