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Abstract

This study investigated the community structure of ciliates in Gahai Alpine Wetland of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. We hypothesized that the ciliate community in the Plateau is more complex and the species diversity is richer than those in other climate zones of China. In particular, we studied how the ciliate species responded to environmental temperature, soil moisture content and the manner of pasture utilization. We determined key features of the ciliate communities such as trophic functional groups, ciliate seasonal distribution, species diversity and similarity index at six sample sites from January 2015 to October 2016. To count and characterize ciliates, we combined the non-flooded Petri dish method with in vivo observation and silver staining. We identified 162 ciliate species in this area, showing a high species and functional diversity. The mode of nutrition was diverse, with the lowest number of ciliates in group N (Nonselective omnivores, 4 species) and the highest number in group B (Bacterivores-detritivores, 118 species, corresponding to 73% of the total species number). Ciliate species richness was significantly positively correlated with environmental temperature and moisture and adversely related to the intensity of agricultural land use. Rotational grazing by livestock or suspended grazing might be useful for maintaining good soil quality, thereby favoring ciliate diversity. Our study may serve as a reference to evaluate the ecosystem status of the Gahai Alpine Wetland and other similar areas in future studies.

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The chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and cholesterol content of milk fat were analysed during the lactation period of thirty Iranian Ghezel sheep. They were fed dry hay for the first three months and then grazed on fresh grass to the end of lactation, along with barley and wheat middling during the whole period. Fatty acid profile analysis showed palmitic acid to be the dominant fatty acid (45.24±1.88%). During lactation C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 contents decreased, while C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and CLA increased significantly, which can be associated with the change of nutrition from hay to fresh grazing. The cholesterol content of the sheep milk reached 14.88 mg/100 ml milk or 283.43 mg/100 g fat as an average for the whole period of milking. Regression analysis showed a significant increase in cholesterol from 5.42 to 32.87 mg/100 g milk during the lactation period.

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A survey was carried out in three stud farms with grazing animals, in order to gather data on the prevalence and clinical manifestation of, and the fly species involved in, traumatic myiasis of horses in Hungary. This parasitic disease was recorded in each farm. On the whole, 9.0% (14) of the inspected horses were infested with fly larvae. The affected horses had one infested lesion only, located at the mucosa of the vulva or the vaginal vestibule. The clinical symptoms depended on the age of infestation. Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was the only myiasis-causing fly species identified. It was assumed that unknown volatile chemicals might be responsible for the attraction of gravid females to the undamaged vulvar region. These odours are supposed to be produced during different physiological and/or pathological events associated with oestrus, prolonged puerperal period or inflammation of tissues. Daily inspection of grazing horses and early treatment of the affected areas are needed to avert significant damage to the infested horses.

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The population of the villages and market towns in the hilly areas of Hungary have countless ties to the forest. However, forest utilisation was restricted by regulations imposed by the state and the large estate-owners. From the mid-18th century the extent to which serfs and cotters could use the forest and the services they were required to provide were regulated uniformly at the national level. Village people regularly violated the central rules and measures of the estate-owners for protection of the forest, in order to provide themselves with firewood, graze animals and sell timber. The peasant forest communities formed after the liberation of the serfs in 1848 were established on the basis of national laws, but local traditions and local economic interests also influenced their operation. The forest communities themselves regulated the management of the common forest assets and the share of the profits. Their functioning was characterised by internal autonomy and continuous collective control.

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Abstract  

In the present work we demonstrate the development of a thin layer activation (TLA) method to be able to measure micrometer wear or less by using radioactive tracing. In order to activate very swallow depths we decreased the bombarding energy to the “linear” region of the cross-section curve. The disadvantage of the method is that the wear curve will be “linear” near to the surface instead of “constant” as is the case with the usual (high energy) TLA. The advantage is that the activity of the sample will be much lower and it is concentrated in the swallower studied depth. The other possible method is irradiation under small angle (15 to 30° or even grazing incidence), which also causes a near-surface concentration of the activity produced. Both methods are demonstrated with the most suitable nuclear reactions and some commonly used industrial materials.

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A new closed rock sward association ( Festuco rupicolae-Arrhenatheretum Erdős et Morschhauser, ass. nova.) has been found and described in the Villány Mts (SW Hungary). This community lives in northern expositions, near the ridge or the plateau. Bedrock is limestone and dolomite. In the association dominated by the grasses Festuca rupicola and Arrhenatherum elatius , an unusual mixing of species can be encountered: species of the mesophilous forests, of the karst shrub-forests and of the xerophilous grasslands and rock swards occur together in this community. Description of the new community as a distinct association is supported by the PCoA ordination and the differential species. Ecological properties of the community were characterised by using ecological indicator values. This analysis also shows the dual character of the association. We analysed the new association by computing the spectra of the social behaviour types. The extraordinarily great amount of the disturbance tolerants is probably a consequence of the former grazing pressure or some other disturbance.

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The present paper focuses on the use of old maps and written sources in analyses of the landscape structure and husbandry in the first half of the 19th century. The studied area is situated in the Boletice Military Area in Southern Bohemia (southwest of the Czech Republic). Attention was paid in particular to the area of the former villages of Ondřejov and Chlumany. The maps of the First and the Second Military Surveys, Stable Cadastre, and forestry maps were used for the analysis, together with selected written sources. The results show that ingenious agriculture including mowing, grazing of a notable number of cattle, ploughing and forestry was once characteristic in the area. This paper presents especially the woodland structure in the area and some inconsistencies that were found on the old maps.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: M. Kumar Singh, L. Balogh, and K. Szabó

Sanita di Toppi, L. and Pawlik-Skowronska, B. (eds) (2003): Abiotic stresses in plants. - Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 231 pp. (ISBN 1-4020-1648-4); Weber, E. (2003): Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. - CAB International Publishing, Wallingford, 548 pp. (ISBN 0-85199-695-7); Werum, M. and Lange-Bertalot, H. (2004): Diatoms in springs from Central Europe and elsewhere under the influence of hydrogeology and anthropogenic impacts. pp. 9-417. Reichardt, E. (2004): Eine bemerkenswerte Diatomeenassoziation in einem Quellhabitat im Grazer Bergland, Österreich. pp. 419-480. - In: Lange-Bertalot, H. (ed.): Iconographia Diatomologica. Annotated Diatom Micrographs. Vol. 13. Ecology-Hydrogeology-Taxonomy. A. R. G. Gantner Verlag K. G. Ruggel, 480 pp.;

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Today, native vegetation in the Valdivian Coastal Range (VCR) is restricted to areas where small-scale land use dominates resulting in a vegetation mosaic. This study (1) provides a description of the vegetation types (VT) within the vegetation mosaic, (2) identifies land use drivers that lead to either degradation or recovery processes and, (3) attempts to provide an explanation for the vegetation mosaic with a conceptual model. In two regions of the VCR we sampled 102 plots for composition of vegetation and indicators of livestock browsing, timber cutting and coppice forestry. We classified the vegetation using a flexible beta method and Bray-Curtis distance. Diagnostic species were identified by an extended indicator species analysis. The clustering results were visualized in NMDS and recursive partitioning was used to explain variations in the VTs as a function of the land use variables. Differentiating effects were tested using PERMANOVA and a conceptual model for the vegetation dynamics was developed from the results. Four VTs such as (1) extensively grazed non-native grasslands (EGN); (2), closed and semi-closed grazed Ugni and Berberis shrublands; (3) severely impacted evergreen forests; and (4) sparsely disturbed evergreen forests were recognized. The browsing indicators were important for differentiating the VTs. The EGN grasslands were differentiated by having more than 0.075 dung piles/m2. Areas with fewer dung piles but direct browsing effects had the greatest impact on vegetation. Forests were preserved when the mean browsing index was equal to or lower than 0.5. The cutting frequency was significant in determining overall floristic composition. We showed that shrublands and evergreen forests within the vegetation mosaic and the result of small-scale farming led to high native forest species richness. This makes the vegetation mosaic especially valuable in a landscape dominated by exotic tree monocultures.

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Anderson, R.C. 2006. Evolution and origin of the Central Grassland of North America: Climate, fire and mammalian grazers. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 133:626–647. Anderson R.C. Evolution and

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