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Two hundred and ninety F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the bread wheat cultivar Gaocheng 8901 and the waxy wheat cultivar Nuomai 1 were used in determining the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) and waxy protein subunit combinations and their effects on the dough quality and texture profile analysis (TPA) of cooked Chinese noodles. Seven alleles were detected at Glu-1 loci. There were two alleles found at each of the Wx-A1, Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 loci. Eight allelic combinations were observed for HMW-GS, LMW-GS and waxy proteins, respectively. Both the 1/7+8/5+10 and 1/7+8/5+12 combinations contributed to dough elasticity, and the 1/7+8/5+10 combination also provided better TPA characteristics. Compared to Wx protein, HMW-GS was more important on dough alveogram properties. LMW-GS significantly affected springiness and cohesiveness; HMW-GS mainly affected the hardness; Wx×LMW-GS significantly affected the springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness; HMW-GS×Wx×LMW-GS mainly influenced the springiness and chewiness. But HMW-GS×LMW-GS only affected the spinginess. These indicated the TPA of noodles was significantly affected by the interactions between glutenin and Wx proteins.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: G. Peymanpour, B. Sorkhilalehloo, K. Rezaei, G. Najafian, and B. Pirayeshfar

Ten different Iranian cultivars of bread wheat (Alamoot, Alvand, Arta, Bahar, Chamran, Darya, Dez, Pishtaz, Shahriar and Tajan) were examined for their bread-making properties. To determine the best wheat cultivar, several quality attributes such as protein content on a dry basis (PRT), wet gluten content (WGL), Zeleny (ZLN) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation values, hardness of grain (HRD) and bread volume (BVOL) were measured. Additionally, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) of the wheat cultivars were studied using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two alleles (2 + 12 and 5 + 10) were identified at HMW-GS Glu-D1 locus. Significant correlations were found between PRT and each of the following parameters: ZLN (r = 0.67), BVOL (r = 0.73), HRD (r = 0.71) and 5 + 10 subunit (r = 0.66). Also, correlation between BVOL and HRD (r = 0.67) and that between subunit 5 + 10 and BVOL (r = 0.71) were significant. Among HMW-GSs, 5 + 10 subunit had significant influence on bread-making qualities. Significant positive correlations were obtained for LMW-GSs with HRD and ZLN. Considering the traits such as PRT, HRD, SDS, WGL, ZLN, BVOL, HMW-GS (5 + 10) and LMW-GSs, it was concluded that Bahar was the best choice for making bread. Tajan was ranked as the second best cultivar using the HRD, SDS, ZLN, BVOL, HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs data.

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Sixty-seven cultivars and advanced breeding lines from three major Indian wheat-producing zones were used to investigate the presence of 1RS.1BL translocation and high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), and to determine their effect on bread loaf volume and yield. The frequency of 1RS.1BL translocation was detected in 50.7% of the genotypes. Three, five and two allelic variations were observed at Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1 , respectively. The genotypes with 1RS.1BL translocation were significantly high in grain yield and bread loaf volume than genotypes without 1RS.1BL translocation. The majority of genotypes (76.4%) possessing 1RS.1BL translocation had HMW-GS 5+10. It was concluded that the deleterious effect of rye translocation can be compensated by desirable HMW-GS at Glu-D1 locus.

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In this study we analyzed the performance of three wheat varieties in relation to gluten content under high-altitude growing conditions in the Andes of Ecuador. A field experiment was conducted at 3058 meters above sea level during 2009 using adapted wheat cultivar Cojitambo, cv. Carnavalero, and cv. Sibambe. Transcript accumulations of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits (HMW-GS) genes were also evaluated during grain development using qRT-PCR. We recorded the expression profile of HMW-GS genes during 41 days and showed a coordinated pattern of induction with significant higher levels at 82–86 days. Transcript accumulation of 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Bx7, 1Ax1, and 1By9 genes were analyzed in more details during this period. The assay highlighted the specific contribution of 1Bx7, 1Dy10, and 1Dx5 during gluten formation in Ecuadorian wheat varieties. Under Andean highlands conditions, cv. Carnavalero showed the higher values of total agglomerated protein upon hydration and higher levels of expression of particular HMW-GS genes. The data suggest a correlation between wet gluten content and HMW-GS genes expression. Our study contributes to understand gluten formation in wheat endosperm under high-altitude conditions in the Andes.

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Under artificial Fusarium infection the total glutenin content determined by chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was significantly reduced in comparison to gliadins which were increased. Among protein types, α-GLI and HMW-GS were the highest affected. Artificial Fusarium infection significantly increased GLI/GLU ratio when compared with the natural infected samples. Artificial Fusarium infection dramatically decreased the dough mixing tolerance and had a considerable negative effect on dough energy, maximum resistance, and resistance/extensibility ratio. Disturbed GLI/GLU ratio and an increased amount of mycotoxin DON under artificial Fusarium infection showed a strong negative impact on affected functional properties of dough and bread. Total and γ-GLI as well as GLI/GLU ratio were significantly positively affected by mycotoxin DON in contrast to total GLU, HMW-GS and LMW-GS which were negatively affected. Results indicated that the stability of baking quality parameters of cultivars more tolerance to the Fusarium infection can be well define by lower accumulation of mycotoxin DON.

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A collection of 35 accessions of the tetraploid wild wheat Aegilops geniculata Roth (MM, UU) sampled in northern Algeria was evaluated for morphological and biochemical variability. Morphological and ecological analyses based on morphological traits and bioclimatic parameters, respectively, were assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). Accessions were differentiated by width characters, namely spike’s width, and a weak relationship between morphological traits and ecological parameters was found. Polymorphism of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits was carried on by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Among accessions analyzed, 27 alleles were identified at the two loci Glu-M1 and Glu-U1: resulting in twenty-nine patterns and a nomenclature was proposed. Two alleles at the Glu-U1 locus expressed a new subunit with a slightly slower mobility than subunit 8. These results provide new information regarding the genetic variability of HMW glutenin subunits, as well as their usefulness in cultivated wheat quality improvement.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: T. Abonyi, S. Tömösközi, M. Budai, Sz. Gergely, É. Scholz, D. Lásztity, and R. Lásztity

The proteins that form gluten of a winter wheat cultivar, Ukrainka (HMW-GS composition 1, 7+8, 5+10) grown in Hungary and harvested in the year 2006, was investigated during grain development. The formation of gluten, its protein fractions and composition of polymeric fraction, were followed starting at the 12 th day after anthesis (DAA) to the 52 nd .Gluten formation was first observed (manual method of determination) only 20–25 days after anthesis and its quantity increased rapidly during the next period of grain development. The gluten was separated to a fraction extractable with SDS-phosphate buffer and another fraction, unextractable by this buffer. An increase in the ratio of unextractable polymeric protein (UPP)/soluble protein fraction was observed during grain development. As expected, gliadin was the main component of the soluble fraction and glutenin that of the insoluble one. HMW monomers were detected in unreduced fractions in small quantities only until 30 th DAA. RP-HPLC of reduced gluten fractions showed a slight increase of the ratio HMW/LMW with days after anthesis.An increase of relative viscosity of gluten solutions during grain development was also observed as a sign of polymerization of glutenin subunits and consequently an increase in average molecular weight of glutenin.

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Wheat glutenins containing high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) are the major determinants of wheat gluten quality. In this study, the recently developed reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC) was used to study the synthesis and accumulation patterns of glutenins during grain development of four Chinese bread wheat cultivars with different gluten quality. Developing grains were collected based on thermal times from 150 °Cd to 750 °Cd at 100 °Cd intervals, and the content of glutenin subunits and their accumulation patterns were determined by RP-UPLC as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The results showed that HMW-GS and LMW-GS synthesis were initiated currently at 250 °Cd and they displayed a gradually upregulated expression. All the HMW-GS can be detected at 250 °Cd, earlier than LMW-GS. Different glutenin subunits and genotypes showed clear accumulation diversity during grain development. Particularly, 1Dx5 + 1Dy10 in the cultivar Gaocheng 8901 and Zhongyou 9507 with superior dough properties were accumulated faster at early stages than 1Dx2 + 1Dy12 in Jingdong 8 and Zhengmai 9023 with poor dough quality, suggesting that faster accumulation rate of glutenin proteins at the early stages of grain development may contribute to the formation of superior gluten structure and dough quality.

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Abstract

Thermal behavior, miscibility, and crystalline morphology in blends of low-molecular-weight poly(l-lactic acid) (LMw-PLLA) or high-molecular-weight PLLA (HMw-PLLA) with various polyesters such as poly(butylene adipate) (PBA), poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA), poly(trimethylene adipate) (PTA), or poly(ethylene succinate) (PESu), respectively, were explored using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and polarized-light optical microscopy (POM). Phase behavior in blends of PLLA with other polyesters has been intriguing and not straight forward. Using a low- and high molecular weight PLLA, this study aimed at mainly using thermal analyses for probing the phase behavior, phase diagrams, and temperature dependence of blends systems composed of PLLA of two different molecular weights (low and high) with a series of aliphatic polyesters of different structures varying in the (CH2/CO) ratio in main chains. The blends of LMw-PLLA/PEA and LMw-PLLA/PTA show miscibility in melt and amorphous glassy states. Meanwhile, the LMw-PLLA/PESu blend is immiscible with an asymmetry-shaped upper critical solution temperature (UCST) at 220–240 °C depending on the blend composition. In contrast to miscibility in LMw-PLLA/PTA and LMw-PLLA/PEA blends, HMw-PLLA with polyesters are mostly immiscible; and HMw-PLLA/PTA blend is the only one showing an asymmetry-shaped UCST phase diagram with clarity points at 195–235 °C (depending on composition). Reversibility of UCST behavior, with no chemical transreactions, in these blends was proven by solvent recasting, gel permeation chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Crystalline morphology behavior of the LMw-PLLA/PEA and LMw-PLLA/PTA blends furnishes addition evidence for miscibility in the amorphous phase between LMw-PLLA and PTA or PEA.

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A total of 232 accessions of tetraploid species, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf., 2n=4x=28, AABB) with a widespread origin of various countries were used in this study. Their high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) composition was identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among all accessions analyzed, 194 were homogeneous for HMW-GS, 38 were heterogeneous, and 62 possessed unusual or new subunits. The results revealed a total of 43 alleles, including 5 at Glu-A1 and 38 at Glu-B1, resulting in 60 different allele combinations. The Glu-B1 locus displayed higher variation compared with Glu-A1. Glu-A1c (55.2%) and Glu-B1aj (17.7%) were the most frequent alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1, respectively. Two allele types (“null” and 1) at the Glu-A1 locus and three allele types (7OE + 8, 14+15, 8) at the Glu-B1 locus appeared to be the common types in the 232 accessions. A total of 23 new alleles represented by unusual subunits were detected at the Glu-A1 and the Glu-B1 locus.

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