The residents of Fremont neighborhood in Seattle Washington, witnessed the installation of a 16 feet, bronze statue of V. I. Lenin in June of 1995. The statue, which had formerly gazed upon the city of Poprad in Slovakia, had been purchased for $13,000 in 1993 by a local English teacher Lewis Carpenter, who came upon it in a scrap heap during his stay in Poprad. The ensuing debates that filled the local papers, questioned the appropriateness of the statue in the heart of Seattle's liberal business sector. What did it mean, they wondered, to have the leader of the October Revolution stride towards the fast food restaurant, Taco Del Mar. My paper argues that the reactivation of the monument's political meaning in Seattle was only possible because it moved outside the traditional channels of the museum and its protective walls.
Authors:M. Flues, I. M. C. Camargo, P. S. C. Silva, and B. P. Mazzilli
The Figueira coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is among the Brazilian CFPP which presents higher uranium concentration. Gamma-ray
spectrometry was used to determine 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232 Th and 40K contents in pulverized coal, furnace bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized
coal ranged from 813 to 2609 Bq . kg-1 for U series and from 22 to 40 Bq . kg-1 for 232 Th. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 1442 to 14641 Bq . kg-1, for uranium series. The same enrichment factor was observed for 238U, 226Ra and 232 Th. Only 210Pb and stable Pb presented a high enrichment factor for the last stage filter fly ash. The concentration of the uranium series
found in the ashes is close to the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01).22 Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation.
The report considers the results of the development of the automated technique for simultaneous, multielement activation analysis
of plants and fertilizers for the macronutrient elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and Si. On the basis of analytical procedures,
algorithms and software developed, the first automatic (computer based) installation for multielement analyses of plants and
fertilizers has been completed and is in routine use in the agrochemical and plant breeding research program at Soviet Union.
The proposed technique together with the full automatic real time process of measurement and processing of data by computer,
provides a throughput of 250–500 samples (1250–2500 elements determinations) per 8-hour shift, with the accuracy of ±3% for
N and ±5–10% for P, K, Mg, Cl and ±15% for Ca.
Nowadays the PUREX process is the sole accepted reprocessing technique. Its boundary conditions change all the time: former
metallic low burnup fuels have been replaced by present ceramic oxide fuels with high burnups, and tomorrow fast breeder fuels
with high plutonium contents will have to be processed. In addition, more and more restrictive conditions are being imposed
upon waste treatment and more and more stringent safety regulations are being felt. Within these constraints this report presents
a survey of the results of recent developments in process technology and gives some reference to the importance of process
analytical statements with respect to plant operation. Moreover, recommendations are made for the installation and design
of analytical laboratories and some experiences are communicated in the field of process analytical chemistry.
Authors:M. Vasconcellos, M. Saiki, D. Fávaro, V. Maihara, A. Figueiredo, and M. Catharino
The Research Reactor Center (CRPQ) of IPEN/CNEN-SP operates the IEA-R1 Research Reactor, at a nominal power of 2 MW thermal,
on a 64 hour per week continuous cycle. The IEA-R1 is a pool type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, with graphite
as a reflector. One of the main activities of CRPQ is the neutron activation analysis, which is applied to many fields of
research, in collaboration with other institutes and universities. The Research Reactor installations are also intensely used
for human resources development in the field of radiochemistry and neutron activation analysis, at graduate and post-graduate
levels. In the present paper, an overview will be presented of some of the neutron activation analysis research lines that
are being developed, comprising environmental and health-related applications.
The first aim of our research is to calculate the solar irradiance on roofs assuming clear sky and real (climatologically typical) conditions, respectively, and compare them in a densely built inner city study area in Szeged (Hungary). The second aim is to analyse the shading effect of the tree-crowns on the possible solar energy gain of building roofs. The calculation of the climatologically potential solar energy gain based on an empirical atmospheric transmittance (calculated from the measured global radiation values). The results show that in the case of clear sky condition the urban vegetation (tree-crowns) causes significant potential solar energy loss on the roofs, but in the real situations this effect is less significant. These obtained results clearly illustrate how useful tool could be the presented calculation method at the economical and technical planning stage of the installation of solar systems on roofs.
( 2001 ), Dry installation of a radiant floor or wall hydronic heating system, metal radiating plates that attach to the edges of side-by-side boards and provide metal slots for holding hot water
Authors:P. Aarnio, J. Ala-Heikkilä, T. Hakulinen, and M. Nikkinen
Using gamma-spectrometry systems on mobile units with accurate position information is a convenient means for surveying large
areas for radioactive fallout or finding hot spots due to misplaced sources or releases from nuclear installations. Traditionally,
large (tens of litres) high efficiency NaI(T1) detectors have been used for the purpose. HPGe detectors, however, offer certain
advantages which can often compensate for their lower efficiency. This kind of remote sensing, regardless of detector type,
requires specialized software. In order to provide accurate position information, the integration times must be kept as short
as possible. This is especially true for fast air-borne measurements where counting periods below one second are desirable.
We have constructed a special version of SAMPO software which controls data acquisition and runs real-time gamma-spectrum
analysis including peak determination, nuclide identification, activity calculations, and reporting. The measurement/analysis
cycle can be reduced down to 0.5 seconds on a standard Pentium-based PC. The analysis results are combined with accurate co-ordinates
from a differential GPS system on a color coded map. The system is also able to give alarms based on different criteria. We
have already measured and analyzed more than 500 000 spectra in field applications using jets, helicopters, cars, and also
Authors:A. Sanchez, D. Singleton, B. Walters, and J. Cobb
The British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) complex (Sellafield) in Cumbria discharges into the atmosphere, under authorization by the Environment Agency (and previously, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), radioactive waste consisting of gases, mists and dusts. As part of MAFF's radiological surveillance programme, the intake of radionuclides via food ingestion by members of the public living near this nuclear installation is routinely assessed from measurements made on local food and environmental samples and by using computer models simulating the dispersion and incorporation of radioactivity into foodstuffs. In this study, the individual diets of adults and children living near the Sellafield complex and those from a control group were assessed for their radionuclide content. The participants were selected via a food survey questionnaire which was aimed at identifying those who consume home grown fruits and vegetables or derive these from local sources. The diets were collected over a one-week period in August 1995 and following radiochemical analyses of the diets for239+240Pu,137Cs,90Sr,14C, and129I, the doses received by the participants from these nuclides were extrapolated over a one-year period and compared to doses calculated from food surveillance data and to doses predicted using the MAFF food-chain computer model.