Nowadays the PUREX process is the sole accepted reprocessing technique. Its boundary conditions change all the time: former
metallic low burnup fuels have been replaced by present ceramic oxide fuels with high burnups, and tomorrow fast breeder fuels
with high plutonium contents will have to be processed. In addition, more and more restrictive conditions are being imposed
upon waste treatment and more and more stringent safety regulations are being felt. Within these constraints this report presents
a survey of the results of recent developments in process technology and gives some reference to the importance of process
analytical statements with respect to plant operation. Moreover, recommendations are made for the installation and design
of analytical laboratories and some experiences are communicated in the field of process analytical chemistry.
The report considers the results of the development of the automated technique for simultaneous, multielement activation analysis
of plants and fertilizers for the macronutrient elements N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and Si. On the basis of analytical procedures,
algorithms and software developed, the first automatic (computer based) installation for multielement analyses of plants and
fertilizers has been completed and is in routine use in the agrochemical and plant breeding research program at Soviet Union.
The proposed technique together with the full automatic real time process of measurement and processing of data by computer,
provides a throughput of 250–500 samples (1250–2500 elements determinations) per 8-hour shift, with the accuracy of ±3% for
N and ±5–10% for P, K, Mg, Cl and ±15% for Ca.
In the environment in which we live we are exposed to different kinds of radiation. Radiation is divided into ionising radiation as a result of radioactive decay and into non-ionising radiation, which is the consequence of electromagnetic waves. The use of electric power has penetrated every area of human activities. Its accompanying effects are electromagnetic waves, which expand into the space surrounding the installations for the generation, transmission and use of electric power. The research in the last 20 years has concentrated on the possibly harmful effects of low frequency (0–300 Hz) electromagnetic waves on man and the environment. However, not much research has been conducted into the magnetic fields under the electric overhead traction systems. Therefore, this paper is presenting the results of the calculation of the magnetic field under the electric overhead traction system on Slovenian railways.
Authors:M. Vasconcellos, M. Saiki, D. Fávaro, V. Maihara, A. Figueiredo, and M. Catharino
The Research Reactor Center (CRPQ) of IPEN/CNEN-SP operates the IEA-R1 Research Reactor, at a nominal power of 2 MW thermal,
on a 64 hour per week continuous cycle. The IEA-R1 is a pool type reactor, moderated and cooled by light water, with graphite
as a reflector. One of the main activities of CRPQ is the neutron activation analysis, which is applied to many fields of
research, in collaboration with other institutes and universities. The Research Reactor installations are also intensely used
for human resources development in the field of radiochemistry and neutron activation analysis, at graduate and post-graduate
levels. In the present paper, an overview will be presented of some of the neutron activation analysis research lines that
are being developed, comprising environmental and health-related applications.
The residents of Fremont neighborhood in Seattle Washington, witnessed the installation of a 16 feet, bronze statue of V. I. Lenin in June of 1995. The statue, which had formerly gazed upon the city of Poprad in Slovakia, had been purchased for $13,000 in 1993 by a local English teacher Lewis Carpenter, who came upon it in a scrap heap during his stay in Poprad. The ensuing debates that filled the local papers, questioned the appropriateness of the statue in the heart of Seattle's liberal business sector. What did it mean, they wondered, to have the leader of the October Revolution stride towards the fast food restaurant, Taco Del Mar. My paper argues that the reactivation of the monument's political meaning in Seattle was only possible because it moved outside the traditional channels of the museum and its protective walls.
Authors:M. Flues, I. M. C. Camargo, P. S. C. Silva, and B. P. Mazzilli
The Figueira coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is among the Brazilian CFPP which presents higher uranium concentration. Gamma-ray
spectrometry was used to determine 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232 Th and 40K contents in pulverized coal, furnace bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized
coal ranged from 813 to 2609 Bq . kg-1 for U series and from 22 to 40 Bq . kg-1 for 232 Th. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 1442 to 14641 Bq . kg-1, for uranium series. The same enrichment factor was observed for 238U, 226Ra and 232 Th. Only 210Pb and stable Pb presented a high enrichment factor for the last stage filter fly ash. The concentration of the uranium series
found in the ashes is close to the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01).22 Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation.
( 2001 ), Dry installation of a radiant floor or wall hydronic heating system, metal radiating plates that attach to the edges of side-by-side boards and provide metal slots for holding hot water
Authors:Zs. Révay, T. Belgya, L. Szentmiklósi, and Z. Kis
The PGAA facility at the Budapest Research Reactor has been continually upgraded and developed since its start-up in 1996,
as a result of which its performance has improved considerably. The installation of the cold neutron source, the partial change
to supermirror neutron guides and their realignment increased the flux by almost two orders of magnitude. The data acquisition
has been modernized as well; digital spectrometers were tested and implemented in novel forms of gamma-ray spectrum collection.
This year a higher-efficiency HPGe detector and a new data acquisition module were put into operation. Most recently all the
neutron guides were changed to supermirror-coated ones to further increase the neutron flux. The improved evaluation software
makes possible a more reliable elemental analysis of the samples. In this progress report these developments are critically
reviewed. The characteristics of the latest system are also described. It is the first time that a set of new partial gamma-ray
production cross sections are presented, which are based on the new intensity values of 14N(n,γ)15N calibration standard.
Authors:Khairedin Abdalla, Dimitrios Kaziolas, and Charalambos Baniotopoulos
The present paper deals with the study of the installation behavior of high-strength bolts under friction. For this purpose an experimental program was conducted to evaluate the energy of these bolts that is dissipated due to tightening and loosening. The total number of tested specimens was 100 bolts furnished to the requirements of AASHTO specification M253M. The turn-of-nut tightening method is applied experimentally to evaluate the pretension and the torque for tightening and loosening of bolts. It is mentioned that a number of 56 bolts has 76 mm length while the rest is of 152 mm. The experimental preloading and the lost torque that overcomes friction are compared with the respective analytical values. It is confirmed that the K-nut factor is affected by the type of lubricant and the length of the bolt. Additionally, most of torque is going to overcome friction. The percentage of tightening and loosening torque for both the analytical and the experimental cases is very close.