Authors:V. Balek, Z. Málek, J. Šubrt, and A. Ždimera
Iron(III) hydroxide and oxide-hydroxide samples prepared by precipitation of 0.2M iron(III) nitrate solution by 5M NaOH and subsequently aged at pH 12 for times of up to 50 h have been characterized. The sorption properties towards Sr2+ were characterized by radiotracer method using85Sr, morphology of the samples was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Emanation Thermal Analysis. X-ray diffraction patterns characterized the crystallinity of the samples aged for various times. The maximum (100%) sorption capacity for85Sr corresponding to amorphous iron(III) hydroxide decreased to 75% with the time of precipitate ageing (up to 40 h). This finding corresponds to the development in crystallinity and morphology of the sorbent.
Sorption kinetic behavior of137Cs,85Sr,133Ba and223Ra has been studied in the system: inorganic sorbent on the base of zirconium phosphate, Temoxid-3A, and diluted aqeous solutions. Chemosorption mechanism with the limiting step of external diffusion of the reaction between radiostrontium and the sorbent was established (n=1.304±0.0). For barium, radium and cesium radionuclides this mechanism was found to have an ion-exchange character (n<1), with limiting step of external diffusion for barium and radium radionuclides and internal diffusion for radiocesium. Termoxid-3A possesses good sorption kinetic properties. Values of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the radionuclides studied in the suggested conditions were
n·103. Time for attaining equilibrium does not exeed 40 minutes. Purification coefficient of Moscow potable water from radiostrontium was equal to 100 when 1000 column volumes passed through. Immobilized with strontium sorbent (1.5 mg equiv. of Sr/g sorbent) keeps all its good sorption kinetic characteristics towards radionuclides studied but the mechanism of radiostrontium interaction with the sorbent changes its character from chemosorption to ion exchange (n=0.75).
The microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) was applied to a fractionation of cuticular wax extracts from several solanaceous plant species. A procedure developed requires only 0.6 mL of organic solvents and may be completed in less than 10 min. Hydrocarbons, which are frequently used in chemotaxonomy of Solanaceae, were almost exclusively eluted in one fraction. The amounts of most commonly detected polar wax components (alcohols, sterols, triterpenes) in the same fraction were reduced to ca. 34–46% of the total amounts in the whole extract. Despite the contamination of the hydrocarbon fraction with other wax components, the results obtained using MEPS and standard column chromatography on silica gel were similar when compared using cluster analysis based on the hydrocarbon profiles. However, the method was far less successful in removing the sucrose esters from extracts of Nicotiana rustica leaves. Thus, MEPS fractionation of plant cuticular waxes may be a fast and reliable alternative for the standard liquid chromatography techniques as long as no sucrose esters are present in the extract.
Authors:Omar Abderrahim, Nacer Ferrah, Mohamed Didi, and Didier Villemin
A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using polystyrene resin grafted with phosphonic acid. After characterization
by FTIR and elementary analysis, the new resin has been investigated in liquid–solid extraction of europium(III). The results
indicated that phosphonic resin could adsorb Eu(III) ion effectively from aqueous solution. The adsorption was strongly dependent
on pH of the medium with enhanced adsorption as the pH value of 6.5. The influence of other analytical parameters including
contact time, amount of resin, metal ion concentration, and ionic strength were investigated. The maximum uptake capacity
of Eu(III) ions was 122.6 mg/g grafted resin at ambient temperature, at an initial pH value of 6.50. The overall adsorption
process was best described by pseudo first-order kinetic. When Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were tested, the latter had
a better fit with the experimental data. Furthermore, Eu(III) could be eluted by using 1.0 mol/L H2SO4 solution and the grafted resin could be regenerated and reused.
Authors:Nacer Ferrah, Omar Abderrahim, Mohamed Didi, and Didier Villemin
A novel sorbent resin consisting of a Phosphonic Acid grafted on Merrifield Resin (PA-MR) for the extraction of uranyl from
nitrate media is described. The sorption behaviour of uranyl cation on PA-MR was investigated using batch equilibrium technique.
The effects of parameters such as shaking speed, pH levels, contact time, metal concentrations, ionic strength and temperature
were reported. The results show that the sorption capacity increases with increasing both initial uranyl ion concentration
and temperature and decreases with increasing ionic strength. Therefore, the optimum condition for the present study should
be using 6.6 mg adsorbent per 1.0 mg uranyl in solution with pH 3.6 and shaking at 250 rpm for 180 min. The adsorption behavior
of the system was also investigated and found to be in line with Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data was well described by
the pseudo second-order. Thermodynamics data leads to endothermic process ∆H = + 31.03 kJ−1 mol−1, ∆S = + 146.64 J mol−1 K−1 and ∆G = −11.96 kJ mol−1 at 20 K. ∆G decreased to negatives values with increasing temperature indicating that the process was more favoured at high temperature.
Application study for the evaluation of sorption characteristics of sawdust as an economical sorbent material used for decontamination
of radioisotopes cesium and europium from aqueous solution has been carried out in the present work. In this respect, sawdust
(untreated and treated by HNO3) has been prepared from the commercial processing of wood for furniture production. Pore properties of the activated carbon
such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N2 adsorption and DFT software. Radiotracer method onto sawdust from aqueous solutions was studied in a batch technique with
respect to pH, contact time, temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of Eu3+ and Cs+ have been discussed using five kinetic models namely, pseudo-first-order model, pseudo-second-order model, Elovich equation,
intraparticle diffusion model, and modified Freundlich equation that have been tested in order to analysis the experimental
data. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation
could describe the sorption kinetics for two metal ions. The metal uptake process was found to be controlled by intraparticle
diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔH, ΔG and ΔS, have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures. The obtained
results indicated that endothermic nature of sorption process for both 152+154Eu and 134Cs onto sawdust.
Properties of limestone related to SO2/SO3 reactivity were investigated. Limestone calcined under different conditions (temperature, time and with/without additives)
yield calcines of distinctly different physical structures. The amount of pores and the size of the pores formed during calcination
The main purpose of the present work was to gain a better understanding and more reliable explanation of the temperature regime
for gas desulphurization using Ca-based sorbents in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors.
Pore size, surface area and pore volume of each calcine were determined by mercury porosimetry and BET methods. At higher
calcination temperature and during longer time, sintering became significant and the obtained calcine had a smaller internal
surface area and thereby the average pore radius increased. The additives such as NaCl also accelerated sintering thus increasing
the pore size. The measurements of porosity were supplemented by scanning electron microscopic observations employed for qualitative
description of the pore structure. SEM micrographs are presented.
As a part of a research program on the treatment of radioactive process waste waters, sorbent macroflotation was tested to remove Co(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. Activated charcoal was used as the sorbent, and gelatin, cetylpyridinium chloride, dodecylamine or N-dodecylpyridinium chloride (NDPC) as the collector. In addition to the effect of the collector type on the percent removal, the effects of the pH, the charcoal and collector doses, the metal ion concentration, the ionic strength and the use of combinations of NDPC with other reagents have been investigated. At the optimum conditions removals better then 97% could be achieved in the pH range of 7.5–10.0 with NDPC plus a low concentration of a low-molecular-weight polyacrylamide. The results obtained are discussed in terms of hydrolysis of the metal ion and the electric state of both the charcoal and collector.