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Abstract  

The present work tries to emphasize the effect of acid/basis properties of montmorillonite type clays by ion exchange with cations of different natures. The acidity and basicity measuring was made by thermo programated desorption (TPD)1,2, using ammonia like basis agent and carbon dioxide like acid agent. With TPD method we can determine acid/basis proprietes by measuring of the quantity of the ammonia and carbon dioxide termodesorbed. Clays are crystalline aluminosilicates, similar with the zeolyts, who presents the property of ion exchanging. That propriety can be applicated for pollutants cations from aquatic solutions. Ion exchanging propriety depends of a lot of factors: the cation nature, the valence and the ionic ray of the cation present in the impregnated solution. That's an advantage for depollution process of heavy metals by fixing of these metals by montmorillonite structure. By using TPD metod we can obtaine a caracteristic diagram.

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Abstract  

Temperature-programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometer as a detector (TPD), IR and 13C NMR measurements are used to study the adsorption of n-hexane on hydrated HZSM-5 and NH4ZSM-5 zeolites. The 13C NMR measurements show that n-hexane can access the pore structure of ZSM-5 zeolites previously saturated with water. TPD spectra of n-hexane are monitored in the temperature region 50–300C, in the case of fully or partially hydrated samples; two-stage desorption of n-hexane is found. Simultaneous desorption of water and n-hexane in the same temperature region are found, in all investigated samples.

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Abstract  

DSC and TG-DTA techniques were used to investigate micro-sized silver powder particles and the adsorption of ethyl cellulose on these particles in a solution of ethyl acetate. The apparent specific heat of the silver particles was determined, and the kinetics of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of these adsorbed silver particles was investigated. Results show that the apparent specific heat and desorption kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis techniques could be used to characterize certain physico-chemical properties of such a particulate system.

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H, Li, Na, Cs, NH4, Mg and Al-ZSM 5 zeolites and H and NH4-mordenites were studied by DTA, X-ray diffraction, TPD and adsorption measurements. The stability relating to dealumination and structure destruction depends on the nature of the cation.

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Abstract  

The performances of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by CO/H2 over two Pd/TiO2/Al2O3 catalysts prepared from PdCl2 and Pd(NO3)2 precursors were compared. The catalytic activities (NOx conversion and N2 yield) were measured on these two catalysts. The catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts were studied by various characterization techniques such as BET, CO-chemisorption, TEM, XPS, and TPD. The Pd precursors influenced the Pd particle distribution, resulting in different catalytic activities.

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Abstract  

Thermal evacuation of a surfactant template from pure siliceous MCM-41 and MCM-41 containing aluminium in hydrogen flow was investigated. Micelle templated MCM-41 were prepared using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The products of thermal surfactant degradation outside and inside pores were identified at various temperatures using 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and temperature programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometer (TPD-MS). The GC-MS and 13C MAS NMR results obtained from this study provide an insight into the mechanism of surfactant transformation during MCM-41 synthesis on molecular level.

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The aldol condensation of methyl acetate with formaldehyde to form methyl acrylate was studied in a continuous-flow reactor using a series of supported cesium basic catalysts with commercially available materials (ZSM-5, SiO2, and γ-Al2O3) as carriers prepared by vacuum impregnation. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia and carbon dioxide (NH3/CO2-TPD). The obtained results indicated that the selectivity of methyl acrylate was mainly influenced by the properties of supports. The formation of acetone is approximately proportional to the acidity of supports. The basicity of the catalysts was favorable to the formation of methyl acrylate according to the results of CO2-TPD. The hydrolysis of methyl acetate was inhibited over Cs-HT-SiO2 prepared by SiO2 after hydrothermal treatment. Furthermore, SiO2 with the large mesoporous volume is superior to other supports, which shows the best catalytic activity for the aldol condensation reaction. On the other hand, the catalytic performance of zeolite basic catalysts was strongly influenced by the effect of reactant diffusion. Internal diffusion resulted in the increase of conversion of methyl acetate with increasing specific surface area, while the conversion of methyl acetate decreased with increasing the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) due to the external diffusion.

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Abstract  

Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water was applied to characterize short-time dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolites. Using a regularization method, distribution functions of the effective desorption energy of water were calculated. The results clearly show that during dealumination a new adsorption site is formed which can be attributed to non-framework or transient aluminium species. The highest concentration of these sites was observed for a dealumination time of 25-30 min. NO adsorption studies support this result. Furthermore, it could be concluded that the heterogeneity and the average acid strength of the remaining Si-OH-Al groups of the dealuminated samples do not change compared to the Si-OH-Al groups of the parent HZSM-5 zeolite.

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Abstract  

Alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) ions were exchanged into Hβ zeolite, which were used as the supports to load the noble metal Pt to prepare bifunctional catalysts for hydroisomerization of n-heptane. The catalysts were characterized by ICP, XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and H2-chemisorption techniques, and evaluated in an atmospheric fixed bed reactor. The catalysts promoted by the alkaline earth metals are revealed to present much higher selectivity to isomerization than the counterpart Pt/Hβ. Moreover, the Ba-bearing catalyst loaded with 0.4 wt% Pt and 5:1 molar ratio of Ba to Pt gives a very high selectivity to iso-heptanes 95.4% with a considerable high conversion of n-heptane 61.7%. The promotion effect of alkaline earth metals is briefly discussed in relation to characterization data.

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Abstract  

A series of phosphorus modified Si-MCM-41 catalysts prepared via the impregnation method were used for the vapor-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to caprolactam. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, and NH3-TPD. The results indicated that weak acid sites increased with P content, leading to enhanced catalytic activity. The catalyst with Si/P mol ratio of 25 showed best performance at 633 K. The conversion of cyclohexanone oxime and the selectivity for caprolactam were 92.7 and 64.2%, respectively. The P–OH groups are main active sites for the Beckmann rearrangement. Grafting acid hydroxyl groups to cover the Si–OH groups may be a good way to improve the selectivity for this reaction.

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