Authors:D. Nistor, N. Miron, G. Surpateanu, and A. Azzouz
The present work tries to emphasize the effect of acid/basis properties of montmorillonite type clays by ion exchange with
cations of different natures. The acidity and basicity measuring was made by thermo programated desorption (TPD)1,2, using
ammonia like basis agent and carbon dioxide like acid agent. With TPD method we can determine acid/basis proprietes by measuring
of the quantity of the ammonia and carbon dioxide termodesorbed. Clays are crystalline aluminosilicates, similar with the
zeolyts, who presents the property of ion exchanging. That propriety can be applicated for pollutants cations from aquatic
solutions. Ion exchanging propriety depends of a lot of factors: the cation nature, the valence and the ionic ray of the cation
present in the impregnated solution. That's an advantage for depollution process of heavy metals by fixing of these metals
by montmorillonite structure. By using TPD metod we can obtaine a caracteristic diagram.
desorption coupled with mass spectrometer as a detector (TPD), IR and 13C
NMR measurements are used to study the adsorption of n-hexane
on hydrated HZSM-5 and NH4ZSM-5 zeolites. The 13C
NMR measurements show that n-hexane can
access the pore structure of ZSM-5 zeolites previously saturated with water.
TPD spectra of n-hexane are monitored in
the temperature region 50–300C, in the case of fully or partially
hydrated samples; two-stage desorption of n-hexane
is found. Simultaneous desorption of water and n-hexane
in the same temperature region are found, in all investigated samples.
DSC and TG-DTA techniques were used to investigate micro-sized silver powder particles and the adsorption of ethyl cellulose
on these particles in a solution of ethyl acetate. The apparent specific heat of the silver particles was determined, and
the kinetics of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of these adsorbed silver particles was investigated. Results show
that the apparent specific heat and desorption kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis techniques could be used to
characterize certain physico-chemical properties of such a particulate system.
Authors:E. Alsdorf, M. Feist, H. Fichtner-Schmittler, H. Jerschkewitz, U. Lohse, and B. Parlitz
H, Li, Na, Cs, NH4, Mg and Al-ZSM 5 zeolites and H and NH4-mordenites were studied by DTA, X-ray diffraction, TPD and adsorption measurements. The stability relating to dealumination and structure destruction depends on the nature of the cation.
Authors:J. Goworek, Agnieszka Kierys, W. Gac, Anna Borówka, and R. Kusak
Thermal evacuation of a surfactant template from pure siliceous MCM-41 and MCM-41 containing aluminium in hydrogen flow was
investigated. Micelle templated MCM-41 were prepared using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The products of thermal
surfactant degradation outside and inside pores were identified at various temperatures using 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and
temperature programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometer (TPD-MS). The GC-MS and 13C MAS NMR results obtained from this study provide an insight into the mechanism of surfactant transformation during MCM-41
synthesis on molecular level.
Authors:Yinghua Li, Dae-Won Lee, Yoon-Ki Hong, Seong-Min Kim, Hyun-Sik Han, and Kwan-Young Lee
The performances of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by CO/H2 over two Pd/TiO2/Al2O3 catalysts prepared from PdCl2 and Pd(NO3)2 precursors were compared. The catalytic activities (NOx conversion and N2 yield) were measured on these two catalysts. The catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts were studied by various characterization
techniques such as BET, CO-chemisorption, TEM, XPS, and TPD. The Pd precursors influenced the Pd particle distribution, resulting
in different catalytic activities.
Authors:Yanan Wang, Huanhui Chen, Guoqing Zhao, Min Liu, Xuewei Lang, and Zhirong Zhu
The aldol condensation of methyl acetate with formaldehyde to form methyl acrylate was studied in a continuous-flow reactor using a series of supported cesium basic catalysts with commercially available materials (ZSM-5, SiO2, and γ-Al2O3) as carriers prepared by vacuum impregnation. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia and carbon dioxide (NH3/CO2-TPD). The obtained results indicated that the selectivity of methyl acrylate was mainly influenced by the properties of supports. The formation of acetone is approximately proportional to the acidity of supports. The basicity of the catalysts was favorable to the formation of methyl acrylate according to the results of CO2-TPD. The hydrolysis of methyl acetate was inhibited over Cs-HT-SiO2 prepared by SiO2 after hydrothermal treatment. Furthermore, SiO2 with the large mesoporous volume is superior to other supports, which shows the best catalytic activity for the aldol condensation reaction. On the other hand, the catalytic performance of zeolite basic catalysts was strongly influenced by the effect of reactant diffusion. Internal diffusion resulted in the increase of conversion of methyl acetate with increasing specific surface area, while the conversion of methyl acetate decreased with increasing the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) due to the external diffusion.
Authors:Rita Sattler, W.-D. Einicke, and B. Hunger
Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water was applied to characterize short-time dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolites. Using
a regularization method, distribution functions of the effective desorption energy of water were calculated. The results clearly
show that during dealumination a new adsorption site is formed which can be attributed to non-framework or transient aluminium
species. The highest concentration of these sites was observed for a dealumination time of 25-30 min. NO adsorption studies
support this result. Furthermore, it could be concluded that the heterogeneity and the average acid strength of the remaining
Si-OH-Al groups of the dealuminated samples do not change compared to the Si-OH-Al groups of the parent HZSM-5 zeolite.
Authors:F. Villiéras, L. Michot, G. Gérard, J. Cases, and W. Rudzinski
Controlled-rate thermodesorption (CRTD) spectra are obtained by adjusting the heating rate in such a way that the rate of
desorption can be constant. A quantitative analysis of the obtained spectra is presented, based on application of the statistical
rate theory of interfacial transport (SRTIT) to describe both adsorption and desorption kinetics. The SRTIT approach relates
the rates of adsorption and desorption to the chemical potentials of the adsorbate in the gaseous and in the adsorbed phases.
This quantitative analysis of the CRTD spectra yields the condensation approximation for the actual adsorption energy distribution.
For the purpose of illustration, an analysis is made of water desorption from a synthetic apatite mineral under CRTD and classical
TPD conditions. The influence of the adsorption and desorption rates is also discussed.
Authors:Jinbo Ni, Min Wu, Zhaohui Yang, Changfei Bu, and Qin He
SO42−/TiO2–MxOy (M = Zr, Ce, La) were prepared by the precipitation-impregnation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD). Catalytic activities were evaluated in the acetalization of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) with acetaldehyde and hydrolysis
of 2-methyl-1,3-dioxane (2MD). SO42−/TiO2–ZrO2 (STZ) exhibited the best catalytic activity both in the acetalization and hydrolysis. With the molar ratio of Zr4+/Ti4+ = 1:4, the highest yields were 96.45% in 3 h and 93.68% of 2MD hydrolyzed in 18 h, in contrast to the yields lower than 60%
by using other superacids. These results are consistent with the strongest acidity of the superacid containing Zr4+ among prepared superacids containing other cations.