Authors:D. Nistor, N. Miron, G. Surpateanu, and A. Azzouz
The present work tries to emphasize the effect of acid/basis properties of montmorillonite type clays by ion exchange with
cations of different natures. The acidity and basicity measuring was made by thermo programated desorption (TPD)1,2, using
ammonia like basis agent and carbon dioxide like acid agent. With TPD method we can determine acid/basis proprietes by measuring
of the quantity of the ammonia and carbon dioxide termodesorbed. Clays are crystalline aluminosilicates, similar with the
zeolyts, who presents the property of ion exchanging. That propriety can be applicated for pollutants cations from aquatic
solutions. Ion exchanging propriety depends of a lot of factors: the cation nature, the valence and the ionic ray of the cation
present in the impregnated solution. That's an advantage for depollution process of heavy metals by fixing of these metals
by montmorillonite structure. By using TPD metod we can obtaine a caracteristic diagram.
desorption coupled with mass spectrometer as a detector (TPD), IR and 13C
NMR measurements are used to study the adsorption of n-hexane
on hydrated HZSM-5 and NH4ZSM-5 zeolites. The 13C
NMR measurements show that n-hexane can
access the pore structure of ZSM-5 zeolites previously saturated with water.
TPD spectra of n-hexane are monitored in
the temperature region 50–300C, in the case of fully or partially
hydrated samples; two-stage desorption of n-hexane
is found. Simultaneous desorption of water and n-hexane
in the same temperature region are found, in all investigated samples.
DSC and TG-DTA techniques were used to investigate micro-sized silver powder particles and the adsorption of ethyl cellulose
on these particles in a solution of ethyl acetate. The apparent specific heat of the silver particles was determined, and
the kinetics of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of these adsorbed silver particles was investigated. Results show
that the apparent specific heat and desorption kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis techniques could be used to
characterize certain physico-chemical properties of such a particulate system.
Authors:E. Alsdorf, M. Feist, H. Fichtner-Schmittler, H. Jerschkewitz, U. Lohse, and B. Parlitz
H, Li, Na, Cs, NH4, Mg and Al-ZSM 5 zeolites and H and NH4-mordenites were studied by DTA, X-ray diffraction, TPD and adsorption measurements. The stability relating to dealumination and structure destruction depends on the nature of the cation.
Authors:Yinghua Li, Dae-Won Lee, Yoon-Ki Hong, Seong-Min Kim, Hyun-Sik Han, and Kwan-Young Lee
The performances of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by CO/H2 over two Pd/TiO2/Al2O3 catalysts prepared from PdCl2 and Pd(NO3)2 precursors were compared. The catalytic activities (NOx conversion and N2 yield) were measured on these two catalysts. The catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts were studied by various characterization
techniques such as BET, CO-chemisorption, TEM, XPS, and TPD. The Pd precursors influenced the Pd particle distribution, resulting
in different catalytic activities.
Authors:J. Goworek, Agnieszka Kierys, W. Gac, Anna Borówka, and R. Kusak
Thermal evacuation of a surfactant template from pure siliceous MCM-41 and MCM-41 containing aluminium in hydrogen flow was
investigated. Micelle templated MCM-41 were prepared using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The products of thermal
surfactant degradation outside and inside pores were identified at various temperatures using 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and
temperature programmed desorption coupled with mass spectrometer (TPD-MS). The GC-MS and 13C MAS NMR results obtained from this study provide an insight into the mechanism of surfactant transformation during MCM-41
synthesis on molecular level.
Authors:Yanan Wang, Huanhui Chen, Guoqing Zhao, Min Liu, Xuewei Lang, and Zhirong Zhu
The aldol condensation of methyl acetate with formaldehyde to form methyl acrylate was studied in a continuous-flow reactor using a series of supported cesium basic catalysts with commercially available materials (ZSM-5, SiO2, and γ-Al2O3) as carriers prepared by vacuum impregnation. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia and carbon dioxide (NH3/CO2-TPD). The obtained results indicated that the selectivity of methyl acrylate was mainly influenced by the properties of supports. The formation of acetone is approximately proportional to the acidity of supports. The basicity of the catalysts was favorable to the formation of methyl acrylate according to the results of CO2-TPD. The hydrolysis of methyl acetate was inhibited over Cs-HT-SiO2 prepared by SiO2 after hydrothermal treatment. Furthermore, SiO2 with the large mesoporous volume is superior to other supports, which shows the best catalytic activity for the aldol condensation reaction. On the other hand, the catalytic performance of zeolite basic catalysts was strongly influenced by the effect of reactant diffusion. Internal diffusion resulted in the increase of conversion of methyl acetate with increasing specific surface area, while the conversion of methyl acetate decreased with increasing the weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) due to the external diffusion.
Authors:Rita Sattler, W.-D. Einicke, and B. Hunger
Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of water was applied to characterize short-time dealuminated HZSM-5 zeolites. Using
a regularization method, distribution functions of the effective desorption energy of water were calculated. The results clearly
show that during dealumination a new adsorption site is formed which can be attributed to non-framework or transient aluminium
species. The highest concentration of these sites was observed for a dealumination time of 25-30 min. NO adsorption studies
support this result. Furthermore, it could be concluded that the heterogeneity and the average acid strength of the remaining
Si-OH-Al groups of the dealuminated samples do not change compared to the Si-OH-Al groups of the parent HZSM-5 zeolite.
Authors:Ping Liu, Xingguang Zhang, Yue Yao, and Jun Wang
Alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) ions were exchanged into Hβ zeolite, which were used as the supports to load the
noble metal Pt to prepare bifunctional catalysts for hydroisomerization of n-heptane. The catalysts were characterized by ICP, XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and H2-chemisorption techniques, and evaluated in an atmospheric fixed bed reactor. The catalysts promoted by the alkaline earth
metals are revealed to present much higher selectivity to isomerization than the counterpart Pt/Hβ. Moreover, the Ba-bearing
catalyst loaded with 0.4 wt% Pt and 5:1 molar ratio of Ba to Pt gives a very high selectivity to iso-heptanes 95.4% with a
considerable high conversion of n-heptane 61.7%. The promotion effect of alkaline earth metals is briefly discussed in relation to characterization data.
Authors:Dongshun Zhang, Rijie Wang, Xiaoxia Yang, and Wensheng Yao
A series of phosphorus modified Si-MCM-41 catalysts prepared via the impregnation method were used for the vapor-phase Beckmann
rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to caprolactam. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, FT-IR, and NH3-TPD. The results indicated that weak acid sites increased with P content, leading to enhanced catalytic activity. The catalyst
with Si/P mol ratio of 25 showed best performance at 633 K. The conversion of cyclohexanone oxime and the selectivity for
caprolactam were 92.7 and 64.2%, respectively. The P–OH groups are main active sites for the Beckmann rearrangement. Grafting
acid hydroxyl groups to cover the Si–OH groups may be a good way to improve the selectivity for this reaction.