Authors:Hugo Gregório, Isabel Pires, Fernanda Seixas, and Felisbina Queiroga
We describe the case of a 14-year-old Domestic Short Hair male cat that presented with a single mammary tumour one centimetre in diameter, classified as invasive micropapillary carcinoma. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed a high mitotic index, a KI-67 index of 10%, a lack of reactivity to myoepithelial markers, and a dense infiltration with T and B lymphocytes at the periphery of the tumour. Micrometastases were detected in the regional lymph node at the time of surgery. Overall survival time was 10 months with a disease-free interval of 7.5 months. Distant metastases in the sublumbar lymph nodes confirmed the aggressiveness of this tumour, which has recently been subtyped in female cats. This is the first case reported in male cats with a complete follow-up, highlighting the importance of prompt and aggressive treatment in the presence of mammary tumours in male cats.
It is a well known fact that the system of the official communication of the Roman Empire had undergone a striking change after Diocletian’s accession (284): Latin came into prominence and was used exclusively in the Eastern imperial administration where Greek had played an important role before Diocletian. So far this prominence of Latin has commonly been interpreted as an effect of a radical change in the language policy of the Roman state, claiming that Diocletian and Constantine I had introduced a new intolerant and aggressive language policy in the framework of the rehabilitation of the Roman Empire. In my paper I try to demonstrate that this alleged aggressive language policy never existed and that the prominence of Latin in the Eastern part of the Empire spontaneously resulted from the bureaucratic and governmental transformation of the Roman Empire that significantly increased the prestige of the Latin language.
Balances utilising the principle of free magnetic suspension can be very useful for thermogravimetric experiments, where aggressive atmospheres and high pressures are applied. Magnetic coupling systems with automatically controlled attraction can be used for direct conversion of weight into an electric signal or for the separation of object and beam balance. The magnetic suspension balance is described and a new versatile magnetic coupling system is presented. Due to its low weight, this coupling can be combined with a microbalance.
Authors:H. Acciaresi, M. Yanniccari, E. Leguizamón, and J. Guiamet
In an environment involving water deficit and competition, weed species may show inefficient water use. The aim was to determine the water consumption strategy of Zea mays and Sorghum halepense and the effects of these strategies on crop and weed competitive ability.Under two soil water availability conditions, the soil and leaf water potential (Ψl), relative water content (RWC) and leaf gas exchange parameters were measured during the critical period of crop competition in pot experiments where Z. mays and S. halepense were grown alone or in competition. In addition, the relative yield total and aggressivity index of both species were calculated.S. halepense showed continuous absorption of water, reaching a lower Ψl than the Z. mays hybrids. S. halepense maintained a RWC of above 90%, which only decreased to 70% in the case of competition for low water supplies. In Z. mays, RWC declined to values of 70% at both water levels. S. halepense exhibited active leaf gas exchange. Z. mays hybrids had lower competitive ability than S. halepense at both competition levels due to their conservative water use strategy. Sustained water use by the weed could be the cause of the increased aggressivity of S. halepense under water deficit conditions.
The paper provides a general evaluation of inflation targeting in Poland with some reference to challenges faced by major central banks. First, it argues that inflation targeting has proved to be relatively successful in Poland and attributes this success to a bias towards the aggressive mitigation of inflationary risks, whenever they have arisen. Second, it briefly explains why the National Bank of Poland does not need to search for an alternative to inflation targeting. Then, it presents the negative aspects of the price level targeting and nominal GDP targeting. Third, it refers to the post- EU accession experience of Poland as being supportive for the “leaning against the wind” approach to monetary policy conducting. Fourth, it argues that such an approach is supported by evidence on the effects of the crisis’ outburst and aggressive interest rate cuts on trust in central banks. Fifth, it indicates the determinants of slow post-crisis restructuring and persistently high uncertainty as desired priorities in the research agenda in central banks.
Authors:Béla Szabó, László Majoros, Erzsébet Papp-Falusi, Zsuzsanna Szabó, Judit Szabó, Ildikó Márton, and Barna Kelentey
An in vitro model has been developed for study of cariogenic potential of different Candida species. Slices were prepared from the root of extracted healthy teeth. These disks were covered with inert material, only the central hole, i.e. the root canal dentin surface remained uncovered. These preparates with free root dentin surfaces were incubated in Sabouraud medium in the presence of six-six Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida inconspicua and Candida norvegensis strains. The calcium release was detected for 15 days. Two types of release could be distinguished. C. albicans deliberated calcium more aggressively (type “A” curve), while other Candidas were characterized by less expressed calcium releasing capacity (type “B” curve). Curves type “A” and “B” were divided into four steps in order to characterize more precisely the different dynamics of calcium release. Analyses of the different steps also suggested the more aggressive behaviour of C. albicans. Our results indicate that in addition to cariogenic role of different bacteria, fungi may also actively take part in the dentinal caries progress.
Authors:Susanne Schönert, Martina Reher, Achim Gruber, and Bianca Carstanjen
This case report describes the use of a subcutaneously applied 4.7-mg deslorelin acetate implant in a three-year-old Arabian crossbred stallion showing unwanted strong male behaviour. Following deslorelin acetate implantation the stallion showed a short transitional increase in male behaviour. A ‘gelding-like’ behaviour was noted 15 days (D15) after treatment. The horse was surgically castrated at the owners request at D52 after treatment. Serum testosterone, oestradiol-17β and oestrone sulphate values decreased after deslorelin acetate implantation, but serum LH and FSH levels remained unchanged. Histopathological analysis of both testes and sperm analysis revealed a reduced spermatogenesis at D52. The testicular volume decreased after treatment. The use of a subcutaneously applied deslorelin acetate implant might be a promising tool to change the behaviour of aggressive stallions.
Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer . In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT2β gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stagedependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT2β gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.
Authors:A. Bittsánszky, V. Rai Ravishankar, and G. Oros
Okra seedlings tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. No connection was revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position. However, the okra proved to be susceptible to strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. R. zeae, a species new to European flora, was as aggressive to okra as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection was more prominent on mass accumulation in hypocotyls than in cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase activity increased in parallel with the evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic antioomycete fungicide induced glutathione S-transferase activity in cotyledons with 24 hours a phase, and this induction was more outstanding in symptomless seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil. It might be concluded, that the stress response of plants in tolerant host/parasite pair takes effect at higher level than in susceptible relationships.