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Abstract  

In the introduction to Ben Belitt's edition of Federico Garca Lorca's Poeta en Nueva York, Angel del Ro mentions three sources that he thought could have influenced the poet while he was staying in John Hay Hall at Columbia University and writing some of the poems that would be included in the volume. Del Ro writes: "Of the books that he read while in New York there are two which may have some significance as indirect sources: Manhattan Transfer by Dos Passos and All Quiet on the Western Front by Eric Remarque." The third source, he adds, was Eliot's The Waste Land. Two of the books have been analyzed and the studies have been published: Eliot by Richard Saez (1962) and Dos Passos by this writer (1993). The present essay is an analysis of Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front and the similarities which are found in his work and Lorca's: despair, disillusionment, disorientation, search for identity, evasive or "lost" love, a "lost generation", and the haven of retreat to childhood, among others. The examples cited from the two works give ample evidence the Lorca did, indeed, absorb not only the ambient of All Quiet but also used similar scenes or events from the novel in his own poetry.

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The purpose of the article is to analyse the unusual, colourful world of Leskov's novel taking the presence and influence of the various subcultural circles in 19th century Russia into consideration. In comparison with the main stream of the Russian literature, the work of Leskov shows many interesting non-typical elements. One of these is his deep interest in the Apocrypha and legends inherited from the Russian medieval culture. The other is his enthusiasm about Russian icon painting, and its weaving into the plots of his novels, among these into the Zapecatlënnyj angel. What is followed in this paper is the penetration of certain motifs into the inner structure of the novel: concrete and symbolic meaning of the icon of Archangel Mikhael. The author of this paper tries to find answers to such questions as Leskov's position concerning the schismatic groups (raskolniki) and the official Russian Church: why had to convert the morally and culturally higher raskolniki to the majority religion (to the bolshinstvo)? Why does a differentiated society seem to be dangerous for Russian thought?

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Summary

The parallel between the incarnation of the Word and the materialization of the picture may have contributed to the emergence of the legend that St Luke was the painter of the Virgin. When the saint painted a colourful, i.e., lifelike portrait of the Virgin and her child, he brought to life the incarnate Word authentically, hence proving the truth of incarnation. Some depictions of St Luke the painter clearly suggest that the saint's work assumed its materiality as a result of incarnation, upon the intervention of the celestial sphere. Colour is one of the tokens of reality; in several cases it is colour that the physician-painter owed to the heavenly sphere. These include the illustration in Johannes von Troppau's evangeliarium, and the representations of the painting saint in which an angel helps Luke to grind pigment. Rogier van der Weyden's St Luke paints a portrait of the Virgin which is on a par with the old akheiropoietos of miraculous genesis. The same intention is detectable in Jan van Eyck's Holy Face representation.

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This paper deals with the differences between the concept of the agent intellect in Thomas Aquinas and in the early Franciscan school with a focus on St. Bonaventure. While according to Aquinas the agent intellect is the faculty of the human soul, in the thought of Alexander of Hales, John of La Rochelle and St. Bonaventure it has a double or even a triple meaning. In the Franciscan Masters the agent intellect is simultaneously considered as a faculty of the human soul but also as God himself and in John of La Rochelle as an angelic intelligence, too. This comparison could be useful in a new interpretation of the Condemnation of 1277 where the proposition on the separate agent intellect is also considered. It seems that the condemnation of this proposition 118 is in accord with the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas. What is actually being condemned here is the doctrine, partially held by the Franciscan friars, who are traditionally considered as initiators of the Condemnation.

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The figure to the right of the Madonna on Albrecht Altdorfer's small painting in the Vienna Art History Museum could never be convincingly named. Whereas the older bald man on the left expands the group into a “Holy Family”, the youthful figure with blonde curls had been called an angel or John the Evangelist only with considerable reservation. Designation of this figure as the early Christian martyr Agapitus of Praeneste, however, makes it possible to explain all his characteristics (his youthful appearance, the bowl of glowing coals with which he was martyred, the deacon's clothing). This identification as St. Agapitus, who is venerated in only a few places, makes it possible to establish a connection between the painting and the Upper Austrian Benedictine monastery at Kremsmünster, where the major share of the saint's relics are located. A tradition of representing the saint as a deacon had developed there, as shown by examples from book illumination and sculpture. Abbot Johannes I Schreiner, a confidant of Emperor Maximilian, could either have ordered or been the recipient of the painting, which is dated 1515. The exquisite design of the Altdorfer painting, with the almost capricious treatment of the northern Italian picture type of the close-up half-length figure beneath lush hanging fruit, could have been made especially to suit the abbot's humanist taste. The painting differs in this respect from other Madonna paintings by Altdorfer which were conceived as devotional images

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Abstract

The author devotes a series of articles to the iconographic and pictorial specificities of the perished ceiling frescoes of Szombathely cathedral. The frescoes were painted on the basis of Franz Anton Maulbertsch's sketches after his unexpected death by Joseph Winterhalder jr. and after the latter's death, by Anton Spreng between 1798 and 1808. Each of the three great frescoes has a different relationship with Maulbertsch's sketches and his concept of ceiling decoration, and in the course of the execution of the work Winterhalder, “the best pupil of Maulbertsch” also changed his attitude to the ongoing work.

The present paper introduces the first piece of the cycle, the Annunciation in the chancel. After Maulbertsch's death Bishop János Szily asked Maulbertsch's father-in-law the engraver Jakob Schmutzer to find a competent fresco painter. He recommended Winterhalder, reporting in enthusiastic terms about the striking resemblance of his style with Maulbertsch's. As the sources reveal, the client did not want to find a Maulbertsch imitator at first and would have respected the artistic originality of the new painter. He was not aware that Winterhalder's successes as a fresco painter were largely due to his ability to reproduce and vary the formal and compositional solutions learnt from his master. After arriving in Szombathely, the painter assured the bishop to continue the original concept of Maulbertsch and not to work after own invention.

When Winterhalder began decorating the chancel ceiling, he had a lot of work ahead on the basis of the bozzetto he received. It was exceptionally rare that Maulbertsch elaborated a detailed design corresponding exactly with the final composition. Usually he only determined the foci of the composition and the protagonists, adding the details ad lib on the ceiling, drawing them in free hand with the brush. Having learnt this method working in Maulbertsch's workship, experienced Winterhalder seems to not have been perplexed by the job of filling the huge vault with a rich composition whereas the sketch only contained the chief motifs. Apart from the bozzetto, another source of the Maulbertschian motifs was a work in Moravia, the central ceiling fresco in the nave of the church of Dyje (Mühlfraun). Winterhalder, too, had been involved in the execution of the fresco and – just like in many other places – he probably made ricordi of Maulbertsch's composition and figural groups, which he must have found appropriate to be used in Szombathely as well. The figure of the adoring angel leaning over a cloud or Saint Michael sitting in contrapposto are exact borrowings from Dyje, and the basic concept of the composition also derives from there. The female figures of the Old Testament in the window zone are also based on another Maulbertsch work, the figures of the Carmelite church in Székesfehérvár.

Winterhalder also relied on his own imagination. It is to the credit of his inventiveness that he turned a biblical scene of meagre external features into a dramatic scene filling a whole vault. On the basis of the Tridentine representations of the Annunciation, he fully exploited the possibilities of the theological metaphors with a huge host of angels, an array of different symbols to enrich the iconographic arsenal of the scene. The foundation for this was Winterhalder's great theological culture and ability to invent symbols, which are obvious in other works of his as well.

Thus, in the first phase of the commisson – the decoration of the ceiling of the chancel – Winterhalder apparently acted as the talented pupil of Maulbertsch in confirmation of his fame. He eminently rehearsed what he had learnt about the elaboration of a sketch and the incorporation of pictorial panels. He dazzled his client – like so many times earlier – by creating a “real” Maulbertsch work. The next phase of the work – the decoration of the central dome – was a more taxing task confronting the painter with a new challenge.

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St John of God is the patron saint of booksellers and bookbinders. An engraving by Joseph Anton Schmidt of Augsburg depicts him, still in civilian clothes, in a baroque printing office of the engraver’s time, around 1770. Johann Andreas Pfeffel jr. made an engraved portrait of his father with a German text of 8 lines under it. My collection has two engravings from around 1670 showing engraving workshops.

Hereafter I am going to list types of Christ. In Johann Andreas Pfeffel sr.’s composition the triumphant Saviour is standing on the instruments of Passion on top of Golgotha, with the flag of Easter in his right hand. His favourite disciple is holding to a rope lowered by the Heavenly Father, his feet treading on the column of the flagellation. The meaning of the allegorical picture is illumined by a quotation from St John’s Gospel (6,44). The Lord Triumphing over Death is reminiscent of a painting by Giovanni Battista Tinti: the blood flowing from Jesus’s heart is gathered by an angel in a cup. Christ’s foot is treading on a skull, he is holding his cross with the wreath of thorns. The mannerist painter of Parma drew inspiration from Michelangelo’s Risen Christ in Rome’s S. Maria sopra Minerva. In a book illustration Pfeffel depicts the blood and water from the side of the transfigured Saviour as the material of the Eucharist, adoring angels gathering it in a chalice and a pitcher.

In Buda’s Víziváros district, on the first side altar on the right in the former Franciscan church (later belonging to the sisters of St Elizabeth) a painted version of the votive statue of Vir Dolorum in Matrei in Tyrol, of which János Fülöp Binder made an engraving, was venerated.

Two monumental works by Michelangelo Buonarroti convey the mystery of Easter. The statue of Jesus in BasBassano Romano was made by Michelangelo earlier (1514- 16) and can thus be taken as precedent to the sculpture of a similar theme in S. Maria sopra Minerva (1521). The dominant attribute is the cross. In the earlier sculpture, in addition to the ropes, sponge and loincloth, the robe of mockery is dropped by Christ’s left hand onto the column of his flogging, which also serves as support.

There is a short red jasper column in the middle of a recess opening from the St Zeno chapel in Rome’s Basilica di S Prassede. Cardinal Giovanni Colonna, the commander of the papal army of the fifth crusade (1219) brought it home from the Holy Land and set it up in 1223. It is allegedly the column of Christ’s flagellation. The Greek emperor Alexios I Komnenos listed the relics kept in Constantinople in 1092: he already mentioned the purple robe and the reed. A register of 1200 includes the sponge, the purple chlamys and the reed in the sanctuary of Hagia Sophia. After the transfer of the relics to Rome, the reed with the sponge could be found in the reliquary of the Sancta Sanctorum in the Lateran. The Lord’s loincloth was preserved in the cathedral of Aachen visited by pilgrims for plenary indulgence as late as the 16th century.

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Summary

In this monographic study the life and the works of the Austrian sculptor Andreas Schroth is elaborated for the first time. He studied from 1803 at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts in the classes of Franz Anton Zauner and Johann Martin Fischer. He was awarded in 1816 by a Silver medal and from 1818 to 1820 he was a Stipendiate. During his Prague stay in 1820–21 the bust of Count Joseph Colloredo was made. From 1823 to 1835 on behalf of Archbishop Sándor Rudnay he worked in Esztergom, and has contributed mainly decorative sculptures to the Neo-Classic Cathedral in construction. In 1823–24 he created the two statues of Genii in the entrance of the crypt, and between 1831–36 he made eight reliefs with the representations of the feasts of the Virgin for the Esztergom Church of St. Anne. In 1829 he made drawings illustrating the local almanach Urania, as well as the marble bust of Marshall Joseph Colloredo for the Vienna Arsenal on behalf of Emperor Francis I. In the years between 1830 and 1835 he was working for the Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma. Only fragments are preserved of the big lead relief decorating the West facade of the Abbey Church. After his return to Vienna he worked in 1838 in Esztergom on the Station reliefs of the Calvary and also for the Count Anton Keglevich in North Hungary. He transformed the facade of the Bohemian Church in Boskovice in 1844, and the relief of the Dead Christ between angels for the Abbey Church in Melk was made in the same year.

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Abstract  

The mobility of Spanish biochemists from Europe to the United States over the past 80 years (1927–2006) is approached from a historical perspective. The academic community on human genetics has awarded this emigrated Spanish community with the Nobel prize as well as other awards from European foundations. The vertical/horizontal integration methodology offers an opportunity to understand the extremely satisfactory history of a small European community overseas. To piece the puzzle together, continuous reference is made to the theory of systems. To test and use this holistic history, the circulation of the knowledge produced on cancer has been studied as intrinsically related to time by using the algorithmic historiography. Francisco Duran Reynals and Severo Ochoa have been selected as examples of the vertical integration. The former one because he was the director of an important collaborator, his own wife; the latter, as the founder of a Spanish specific research school in America based in his own work. The simultaneous stay of several young Spanish scientists at the Columbia University (Mariano Barbacid, Manuel Perucho and Ángel Pellicer) serves to design the horizontal integration, to create a holon hierarchy to reflect the criteria of subsidiarity and acceptability, and to focus on the Spanish discoveries and contributions to cancer research. The transatlantic flows of knowledge generated by the Spanish elite of biochemists in the USA from 1927 on define a network of geographical displacements. As a result, the social structure thus visualizes the identity of the international mobility of scientists who leave for Europe/USA, and their return to Spain. A model of the brain drain of professionals to the USA, that retain 80% of the Spanish cancer researchers, is developed.

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3933 Csébfalvi A. Angel method for discrete optimization problems, Periodica Polytechnica, Civil Engineering , Vol. 51, No. 2, 2007, pp. 37

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