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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Sz. Szélpál, Zs. Kohány, E. Fogarassy, I. Galambos, A. Koris, J. Csanádi, Gy. Vatai, and C. Hodúr

The largest quantities of by-products of dairy processing originates from the cheese making. Whey proteins are used for animal feeding and human nutrition as well, for example in dry soups, infant formulas, and supplements. The fat components of the whey might impair its use. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the separation of the lipid fraction of whey. The microfiltration is said to be a gentle and energy efficient method for this task. During the measurements 0.2 μm microfiltration membranes were used and the membrane separation was enhanced by vibration, inserting static mixer and air sparging. The de-fatting efficiency, the retention of the whey components, the flux values, and the resistances in different combinations were compared in this paper.

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Some Staphylococcus species are frequently recognized as etiological agents of many animal and human opportunistic infections. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of Eugenia jambolanum and Eugenia uniflora against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus — MRSA strain. In this study, the ethanol extracts of Eugenia jambolanum L., Eugenia uniflora L. and chlorpromazine were tested for their antimicrobial activity alone or in combination with aminoglycosides against an MRSA strain using microdilution method. Synergism between both extracts and all aminoglycosides assayed was demonstrated, except E. jambolanum and tobramycin. In the same form, synergism was observed between chlorpromazine and kanamicin, neomycin and tobramicin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. It is therefore suggested that extracts from E. uniflora L. and E. jambolanum L. could be used as a source of plant derived natural products to modify antibiotic activity of aminoglycosides.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: Á. Mayer, J. Rezessy-Szabó, Cs. Bognár, and Á. Hoschke

Twenty-six Bifidobacterium strains were isolated from human faeces. Seven strains were identified as B. bifidum, 4 strains as B. breve, 10 strains as B. longum, 2 strains as B. pseudocatenulatum and 3 strains as B. dentium by 16S rDNA analysis. The isolates from human origin showed strong adherence to the human tissue cultures. Three out of the 12 tested isolates repressed the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria. Utilisation of 9 commercially available oligosaccharides was tested by both Bifidobacteria and enteropathogens. Pro-, pre- and synbiotic food was made. Their effect was evaluated in in vivo feeding experiments, where healthy and antibiotic treated mice were used as test animals. During the four-week feeding period the composition of the colonic microbiota of the healthy mice did not change characteristically in any feeding group. However, the microbiota of mice in which it had been killed by antibiotic treatment was recovered by feeding with synbiotic food.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: É. Sárdi, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, I. Kocsis, M. Takács-Hájos, H. Fébel, and A. Blázovics

Of the twenty table beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta convar. crassa provar. conditiva ALEF.) cultivars investigated for several nutritionally important components (betaine, betanin, phenol, glucose, fructose, sucrose) formerly (Hájos et al., 2004), cultivar Ditroit having average quality parameters was chosen for in vitro animal experiments. The hyperlipidemic rat model is suitable to study the physiological effect of table beet on the metabolic alterations and the redox homeostasis in the liver. In fatty liver, as a consequence of hyperlipidemy, the redox homeostasis is strongly injured. General biologically active compounds of table beet have indirect lipid lowering effect and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the effect of lyophilised table beet powder was studied on altered lipid metabolism and redox parameters in hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemy was induced by a fat-rich diet, and both in the control group and in the hyperlipidemic group, animals were treated with the lyophilised table beet powder (2 g bwkg −1 ) added into rat chow for 10 days parallel with the feeding. Significant antioxidant activity of table beet was recorded in the hyperlipidemic liver. This phenomenon was expected because of the significant amount of betanin and the high total polyphenol content of the beet. Significant beneficial changes were also observed in the serum cholesterol level, alkaline phosphatase and alanine-aminotransferase activities, although a non-expected elevation was observed in the serum bilirubin level in hyperlipidemy. Non-specific H-donor activity was not changed, but protein related free SH-group concentration was decreased in the plasma. Serum triglyceride level was better after table beet treatment in normolipidemy, only. Change of redox-homeostasis was more favourable in the liver during the treatment. Diene conjugate content and the level of induced free radicals decreased during the table beet treatment in case of fatty liver. These changes were due to the bioactive components of the commercially available table beet. Consequently, table beet due to its specific qualities beneficially influences several metabolic pathways, therefore it can be considered as a functional food.

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48 ISO (1990): Animal and vegetable fats and oils — Analysis by gas chromatography of methyl esters of fatty acids . International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, No

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6 ISO (1990): Animal and vegetable fats and oils. Analysis by gas chromatography of methyl esters of fatty acids . No. 5508, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva

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Nanopages
Authors: Imrich Barák, Massimo Barbaro, Dušan Blaškovič, Annalisa Bonfiglio, Andrea Alessandrini, Denisa Mullerová, Paolo Facci, and Luigi Raffo

Number of pathogenic tick-borne bacteria cause diseases in humans and animals. Wide range of conventional methods as PCR, immuno-based detection, cultivation, reverse line blot or microscopy is available for identification of bacterial pathogens. Although, these methods are used often in laboratories, they do not allow simultaneous detection of wide spectrum of bacteria. DNA chips represent technology for fast, sensitive, relatively cheap and simultaneous detection of microorganisms in biological samples. We have developed the oligo-chip for detection of different tick-borne pathogens. This method is based on detection of fluorescent signal after hybridization reaction by using laser scanner. We are also working on preparation of electronic device for detection of specific contact of two single complementary strands of DNA. This method will allow simple detection without using the fluorescent probes and expensive laser scanner. For this purpose a novel solid-state sensor for detection of bio-molecular processes was developed. The device is compatible with a standard CMOS process, providing fully electronic readout and large-scale of integration of biosensors on a single chip. A model of the device was developed and simulated.

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Enteritis is a serious problem for patients having received abdominal radiation. This study was to investigate whether zinc affected intestinal injury induced by the radiation. ICR mice were divided randomly into three groups and treated with one of three different compounds. Two of the compounds contained zinc (gluconate and amino acid chelated with bovin prostate extract) and one was water. One week after receiving the treatment, they were irradiated with 6 or 10 Gy at the abdominal region. One, 2, and 4 weeks after the irradiation the animals were sacrificed to examine the histological changes in the intestinal mucosa. The apoptotic cell numbers were found to be significantly higher after irradiation. The number of the apoptotic cells increased with increasing radiation doses. In this study we found that zinc appears to have the capability to lower the occurrence of apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa, thus protecting intestinal mucosa from injuries. Based on this finding, it would be reasonable to suggest that zinc could be used as food supplements in patients with cancer receiving radiotherapy in a hope to reduce radiation induced toxicity.

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Trifolium pratense cv. Minshan is a dominant red clover variety for animal feeding and pharmaceutical industry in Alpine Pasture Region of Gansu province, northwest China. In order to achieve the best isoflavone production, a 3-year trial was conducted at three locations to study variations of hay yield, total isoflavone concentration and isoflavone yield at different growth stages under different environmental conditions. Predominant isoflavone compounds and distribution of isoflavones in leaves, stems and inflorescences were also investigated. The results indicated that there were large variations on hay yield and isoflavone concentration among different sites, growth stages, age and parts of the plant. Minshan red clover harvested at the flower bud stage had the highest isoflavone yield (86.30 kg ha−1). The temperate climate region, Guanghe, provided the best growth conditions among three sites for isoflavone production (58.93 kg ha−1). The highest isoflavone production (53.42 kg ha−1) appeared at the second year of crop. In Minshan red clover, isoflavones are mainly distributed in leaves (1.12%). The predominant isoflavone compounds were formononetin (0.27%) and biochanin A (0.25%).

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Traditionally, triticale is mainly used as animal feed, the use for human utilization is still uncertain. However, in the past few decades, importance of triticale is increasing globally. Therefore, the determination of nutritionally important parameters of triticale and study of their genetic and environmental (G×E) variability have essential importance. In this study, ten hexaploid triticales along with reference wheat and rye varieties were grown at two locations in Hungary in a three-year-long experiment. Crude protein (8.6–16.3%), crude fat (0.86–1.98%), starch (57.6–65.0%), and dietary fibre values (7.5–13.7%) showed notable differences, significant genotype control were detected in all tested parameters except ash content (1.42–2.10%). The analysis of variance confirmed that crop year affected all traits, and also location had significant effect on the formation of protein and – to a lesser extent – the fibre levels. Furthermore, interactions between the effects were observed. Generally, nutritional characteristics of triticales were positioned between wheat and rye in this experiment; however, there were notable differences between the genotypes, and also the magnitudes of environmental effects were significant. Nutritional values of triticale provide a prospect for food production and human consumption.

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