blight . Crop Prot . 15 , 715 – 721 . Schisler , D. A. , Slininger , J. P. , Behle , W. R. and Jackson , A. M. ( 2004 ): Formulation of Bacillus spp. for biologicalcontrol of plant diseases . Phytopathology 94 , 1267 – 1271 . Stein
Authors:M. Jovanović, B. Zmbova, T. Maksin, V. Jovanović, M. Odavić, M. Rastovac, and N. Simova
A procedure for obtaining a stable99mTc(V)-DMSA kit and methods for its radiochemical and biological control are described. The effect of pH on radiopharmaceutical stability of the complex was studied. The kinetic parameters of99mTc(V)-DMSA were determined on rats and compared to the corresponding values for renal99mTC-DMSA. Clinical tests showed that99mTc(V)-DMSA is suitable agent for detecting the primary medullar carcinoma of thyroid, as well as for detection of thyroid metastasis.
Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. One single plant may contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, making analytics rather costly. The total bactericide capacity can be quantified by either microbiological or ecotoxicological methods. Here, the principle and possible applications of a specific bacterial bioluminescence inhibition based ecotoxicological assay are reviewed.
Losses due to plant diseases may be as high as 10-20% of the total worldwide food production every year, resulting in economic losses amounting to many billions of dollars and diminished food supplies. Chemical control involves the use of chemical pesticides to eradicate or reduce the populations of pathogens or to protect the plants from infection by pathogens. For some diseases chemical control is very effective, but it is often non-specific in its effects, killing beneficial organisms as well as pathogens, and it may have undesirable health, safety, and environmental risks. Biological control involves the use of one or more biological organisms to control the pathogens or diseases. Biological control is more specialized and uses specific microorganisms that attack or interfere with the pathogens. The members of the genus Trichoderma are very promising against soil-born plant parasitic fungi. These filamentous fungi are very widespread in nature, with high population densities in soils and plant litters . They are saprophytic, quickly growing and easy to culture and they can produce large amounts of conidia with long lifetime.
Standardized laboratory bioassays were carried out at the Institute for Biological Control of the Federal Biological Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry to determine the susceptibility of two Colorado potato beetle (CPB) populations to Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. tenebrionis (B.t.t.). The beetles were collected from fields near Darmstadt/Hessen, and Michelfeld/Baden-Württemberg. The Michelfeld population, collected from an ecological farm, was sprayed since 1993, once or twice a year with NOVODOR FC, a formulation of B.t.t. The Darmstadt population was never sprayed with B.t.t. before. Our studies showed that the susceptibility of the larvae (LD 50 values) of the two populations did not differ each other significantly. Although resistance of CPB to B.t.t. under laboratory conditions has already been demonstrated, our presumption is that the resistance development of CPB on the field is probably much slower when the farmer is using crop rotation.
Bourne, J. M. and Kerry, B. R. (1999): Effect of the host plant on the efficacy of
as a biologicalcontrol agent of root-knot nematodes at different nematode densities and fungal application rates. Soil Biology and