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Girdle-hangers represent one of the most characteristic elements of the female graves in the Merovingian culture. Concerning their structure and decoration a great variety can be observed. A particular variant was identified in the Carpathian Basin characterized by the decoration with hinged plates. The present paper is an attempt to catalogue and analyze the finds of this kind coming from the Gepidic Period, based on the published material. The few discoveries belonging to the Early Avar Period are also included. Emphasis is placed on the typology, chronology and geographical distribution as well as on the possibilities of reconstruction and interpretation of the female dress accessorized with girdle-hanger.

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Abstract

The Somogyszil cemetery had become known in 1964, when a local resident reported the finds. The site was excavated by Balázs Draveczky uncovering 148 late Roman graves up to 1968. The whole cemetery was published in 1979 by Alice Sz. Burger. Our research agenda focuses on the spatial organization of the burial grounds used by the province’s rural population as well as on burial customs (funerary rites, grave and burial types), chronology and the mapping of local and non-local tendencies. During the critical re-assessment of the cemetery, we have found that the establishment and use of this late Roman burial ground could be connected to a heterogeneous community.

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Astronomical phenomena play a specific role in ancient literature to illustrate the internal chronology of the plot. It is obvious that especially poetical texts which deal with constellations and astronomical terms show a maximum of the so called poetical doctrina as – for example – can be seen in the work of Statius. The present paper thus tries to prove this thesis by analyzing the verses 692–693 of the first book of the Thebais. Therein the vanishing of the Great Bear/Big Dipper constellation seems to refer to a specific season.

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The study addresses problems of chronology based on a re-assessment of the section cut through the rampart of the fort at Zalavár-Vársziget, of the rampart’s structural traits and of its function within the context of the settlement, as well as through the analysis of the recovered finds and the results of the dendrochronogical analyses.

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Abstract  

Neutron activation, applied to silver and copper based coinage, leads to a measure of the mean concentrations of major and 12 trace elements, even if their distribution is heterogeneous. The drawbacks of this activation method applied to such a matrix are shielding effects and high radioactivity of major elements. Both effects were avoided by accurately calculating the correction coefficients and by choosing the optimal working conditions. Analytical results obtained lead to a better knowledge of the chronology and origin of Armorican protohistorical coinage.

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We have analyzed 16 elements and the radioactivity of 210Pb in a wood disk, across the annual rings to find out a promising tool for dendrochronology (chronology of wood) both for a Japanese wood, Cryptomeria japonica, and for an Indonesian rain forest wood, Alstonia, which does not form annual rings because of the relatively constant climate of the rain forest. As a result, only Mg concentration showed similar, smooth decreasing tendency in both wood species. The smooth change of the Mg concentration across the annual rings along with the growth suggested the possibility of the Mg concentration determination as a promising dendrochronological tool.

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Summary

Rather than seeking Strzygowski's intellectual parentage in his methodology or archaeology, this paper explores another way in which he has shaped the scholarship of subsequent generations. His work Die Baukunst der Armenier und Europa (1918) furnished an archaeological and critical basis for the study of Armenian architecture. According to him, the basilica was the product of Mediterranean “power-men” or Machtmenschen, a decadent and tyrannical people who deployed it as a means of propaganda or Machtkunst to subjugate the Aryans. Strzygowski's Armenian theories were based on an imaginative chronology which assigned the origin of the Armenian dome to the fourth century.

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Numerous accumulations of CO2 and nitrogen-rich natural gas are known in the hot Pannonian Basin System (PBS), where even the mixture of these two fluids is a common phenomenon. The Danube Basin, part of the PBS, is characterized by the predominance of CO2 and nitrogen-rich natural gas over “normal” natural gas. The multistacked Répcelak and Mihályi gas accumulations (southern, Hungarian part of the Danube Basin) display an upward increase of nitrogen-rich natural gas at the expense of CO2. This study, using the abundant public data, the published results and the new biomarker data obtained from oil traces, attempts to explain the formation of these multistacked accumulations. A synoptic view of the vertical changes in gas composition, the maturation history of the basin and its basement, the chronology of the Neogene basaltic volcanism and the biomarker pattern of the oil traces resulted in the recognition of the metasedimentary origin of the nitrogen-rich natural gas and in a relative chronology of the mixing of the two gases and the oil.

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This essay offers an analysis of “the two-finger” illustration which Bhāviveka discusses in the Vaiśeṣikatattvaviniścaya chapter of the Tarkajvālā, the auto-commentary on his Madhyamakahṛdaya[kārikā], wherein he introduces and criticises the theories of the Vaiśeṣika school. Going through the early Vaiśeṣika literature, I have noticed that these two-finger (dvyaṅgula, two fingers in a unit form, or finger-pair) illustrations only occur in Candrānanda’s Vṛtti, and in a very clear and straightforward manner. As I will point out, it is a mystery and indeed somewhat perplexing that the references to this illustration in the Tarkajvālā are not at all immediately intelligible. This circumstance will be addressed in this essay, where also an interpretation and a solution will be offered. In addition, the relative chronology of Bhāviveka and Candrānanda as well as their contemporaries in around 6th-century India will also be discussed.

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This article revisits the complex oeuvre of the Timurid historian Sharaf al-Dīn’ Alī Yazdī. Yazdī is most famous for two chronicles that he wrote: The Ẓafarnāma, which mainly includes a biography of Timur, and the Muqaddima, a work devoted mainly to the history of Chinggis Khan and his descendants. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Yazdī left behind three other historical works or parts thereof: the Dībācha, the Second Maqāla, and the fragments of the Fatḥnāma-yi Humāyūn found in the Dīvān-i Sharaf. In this article, I argue that Yazdī could not finish his historical project and all the extant works written by him are fragments of a larger historical project. I also attempt to shed light on how they are related to each other, and propose a tentative chronology for the composition of each fragment.

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