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( Triticum durum Desf.) cultivées en Algérie. (Evaluation of the genetic progress of some varieties of durum wheat ( Triticum durum Desf.) cultivated in Algeria). Actes du premier symposium international sur la filière blé: enjeux et stratégies . ITGC

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., Maas, E. V., Donovam, T. J., Youngs, V. L. (1986): Effect of salinity on vegetative growth and germination of semi-dwarf and durum wheat. Agron. J ., 78 , 1053-1058. Agron. J

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durations of vegetative and grain filling phases, yield components, and grain yield in durum wheat cultivars. Crop Sci. 22: 287–290. Baker R.J. Relationships among durations of vegetative

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229 235 De Vita, P., Maggio, A. 2006. Yield stability in durum wheat: Progress over the last two decades in Italy. Cereal Res. Commun. 34 :1207

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of Italian National Health Institute (ISS), II ed. Rome, Italy. Ehdaie, B., Shakiba, M.R., Waines, J.G. 2001. Sowing date and nitrogen input influence nitrogen-use efficiency in spring bread and durum wheat

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. Evaluation of phenolic antioxidant capacity in grains of modern and old durum wheat genotypes by the novel QUENCHER ABTS approach. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. DOI: 10.1007/s11130-015-0483-8, in press

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Greenhouse experiments were conducted for two consecutive seasons to investigate the influence of volunteer durum wheat cultivars and density on lentil growth and yield. It is speculated that interference may be severe whenever wheat and lentils are rotated in semi-arid regions. Lentil:durum wheat ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:6 were evaluated utilizing two durum wheat cultivars, Hourani and ACSAD 65. The results indicated that wheat interference did not influence lentil growth for the first 80 days after crop emergence, but afterwards, the lentil height, straw and seed yield were affected by the presence of wheat. A 50% reduction in either lentil straw or seed yield was estimated from the interference of a single plant per pot. The semi-tall cultivar Hourani had more adverse effects on lentil growth and yield than the semi-dwarf cultivar ACSAD 65.

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Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. Desf.) is a species well adapted to the Mediterranean environments where salt stress due to seawater intrusion is an increasing problem. The purpose of this study was to deep insight into the relationships among physiological, productive and qualitative aspects under salinity, being these aspects still poorly investigated in durum wheat. In 2004–2005 crop season 10 durum wheat genotypes of different origin and breeding time were grown in a naturally-lit polycarbonate greenhouse under three irrigation water salinity levels (0.9, 6.0 and 12.0 dS m−1). A complete randomized block design with three replications was adopted. The osmotic damage was evaluated by estimating relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (Φw) and osmotic potential at full turgor (Φπ100). The toxic damage to the plants was evaluated by measuring Na+ accumulation and Na+/K+ ratio in the leaves. Differences in yield performance were evaluated by assessing the main yield components and some qualitative traits, carotenoid pigment and protein content and Sedimentation test in sodium dodecyl sulphate. A significant effect of genotype, salt stress and of their interaction on all the characters was observed. Durum wheat genotypes generally showed a moderate tolerance to salt stress. The genotype performance was dependent on stress level and RWC maintenance. Osmotic adjustment and low sodium accumulation were found to play a key role in salt tolerance. An improvement in the grain quality characters on increasing salinity level, consistently with a yield decrease, was observed.

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Durum wheat landraces are still cultivated to take advantage of their excellent grain and straw quality, adaptation to abiotic stresses, and extremely wide variety of uses. The safeguarding and rehabilitation of genetic inheritance requires genetic characterization and evaluation. In this study, forty durum wheat landraces originating from Mediterranean countries were evaluated according to agro-morphological and technological properties. We show that the germplasm was highly variable. The mean yellow pigment and protein content was higher in landraces (15.58%; 7.32 ppm) than in the Moroccan cultivars used as controls (14.6%; 5.48 ppm). In addition, principal component analysis identified five groups showing variable agronomic and qualitative characteristics that might be useful in the rational design of breeding programs.

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Phytotron experiments were conducted to examine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 level (750 μmol mol−1) on the drought tolerance of winter barley (Petra), durum wheat (Mv Makaroni) and spring oat (Mv Pehely) varieties. Under drought stress conditions, the durum wheat variety was found to be unaffected by CO2 enrichment, as neither the biomass or grain yield nor the antioxidant enzyme activities changed compared to those at ambient CO2. Despite the fact that the spring oat variety had similar grain yield loss due to drought at both CO2 levels, it exhibited reduced antioxidant enzyme activities under less severe drought, indicating a slightly increased tolerance to drought. Winter barley, which exhibited an extremely positive reaction to CO2 enrichment at the control water supply level, also showed increased drought tolerance in response to high CO2. It had low glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and ascorbate peroxidase activities even at the most severe drought stress levels, while it could also fully compensate for the negative effects of drought on biomass and grain yield parameters when grown at elevated CO2.

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