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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: C. Dunkley, W. Kim, W. James, W. Ellis, J. McReynolds, L. Kubena, D. Nisbet, and S. Ricke

Abstract  

A method has been developed for the study of passage rates and mean residence times (MRT) of test rations through the gastrointestinal tracts of layer hens. The use of rare earth elements as stable indigestible markers monitored by neutron activation analysis has been previously demonstrated in numerous species. In this study hafnium was used to mark corn and alfalfa rations as well as a combination ration made up of 90% alfalfa and 10% corn. The primary goal of the study was to evaluate the potential for use of rare earth stable markers in poultry digestion and to determine efficiency of meal marking, optimum exposure rates and determination limits for use in the design of future experimental protocols. Three groups of 10 hens each were fed a particular marked meal with fecal droppings monitored for 24 hours. The hens were sacrificed after a second dosed feeding and a delay of two or seven hours, and digesta was collected from each portion of the gastrointestinal tract. Fecal dry matter as well as digesta collected was then prepared for analysis and the elemental concentrations of hafnium were measured with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Element adsorption on alfalfa was far less efficient than on the corn ration, limiting the applicability of much of the alfalfa data to digestion studies. Passage rate curves were prepared for corn. The marker was found to primarily concentrate in the ileum at both sacrifice times.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Linda Nógrádi, Iain Cope, Márton Balogh, and János Gál

The authors present eight cases of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in guinea pigs from the Department and Clinic of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary between 2012 and 2016. Seven animals were operated on and two survived. Gastric torsion has been noted in many mammalian species. Gastric volvulus has a high morbidity and high mortality rate with a guarded to poor prognosis in all of these species. How GDV develops is still not widely understood. Postmortem examinations, in both our cases and previously reported cases, have failed to reveal the exact causes of the gastric torsions. The aetiology of gastric torsion in guinea pigs is probably multifactorial. Feeding fewer meals per day, eating rapidly, decreased food particle size, exercise, stress after a meal, competition, age, and an aggressive or fearful temperament, are all likely and potential risk factors for GDV development in a similar fashion to dogs. Sex, breeding, dental diseases, anatomical abnormalities, pain and pregnancy may also be contributing factors.

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The fragments of Ephippos’ Geryones include a long description of a huge fish cooked by Geryones in a correspondingly oversized casserole (fr. 5). This kind of description is amply paralleled in folktales from around the world concerning gigantic objects. Stories of this type were widely diffused already in antiquity, both in Greece and in the Near East. It is likely that Ephippos’ passage was inspired by the popular narrative tradition of his time. Comparison with the folktale material helps understand the context of fr. 5 and its function in the play. Various traditional elements of Geryones’ myth (his gigantic size, herds of oxen, far-off island, and the cup of Helios used to reach it) are comically reflected in Ephippos’ text, intermingled with folktale motifs. As usually in folk tradition, the description of the giant fish may have been a false tale. It would doubtless stimulate the appetite of Heracles, the central hero of the play, and incite him to travel to Geryones’ land; but the hero would be finally disappointed of the huge meal he expected (a common motif in Attic comedy). Fr. 3 from the same play indicates that “Heracles losing his meal” was a recurrent Leitmotiv in the plot.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: L. Biró, B. Rabin, A. Regöly-Mérei, K. Nagy, B. Pintér, E. Beretvás, E. Morava, and M. Antal

The lack of data regarding dietary and lifestyle habits of Hungarian university students prompted us to undertake a cross-sectional pilot study of students of Semmelweis University, Budapest. A total of 264 students (78 males with mean age of 21.4±2.6 y and 186 females with a mean age of 21.2±2.6 y) were involved in the study. The questionnaires contained inquiries of energy and nutrient intake, use of vitamin and mineral supplements, food frequency, meal frequency and physical activity. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS for Windows 9.0. The energy, protein and fat intake was somewhat higher than the Hungarian Recommended Dietary Allowances (HRDA) (BIRÓ & LINDNER, 1999). Sodium intake was alarmingly high. Vitamin D consumption was inadequate. The intake of the members of vitamin B group with exception of B12 and niacin was insufficient. The daily consumption of milk, dairy products, fruits and vegetables was deficient. The meal pattern was unbalanced. Only 66% of males and 52% of females were involved in a regular physical activity. Our results suggest that nutrition should be introduced into the medical curriculum as a separate and full-fledged course of study.

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Abstract  

A non destructive method based on the31P(n,)32P reaction for the assay of phosphorus in bone samples is described. This method involves a thermal neutron irradiation of 2 minutes in a reactor followed by the measurement of the bremsstrahlung produced by the of32P in a Ge-detector surrounded by an anti-Compton shield. Accuracy and precision were tested by analysing the certified NIST 1486 Bone Meal reference material and tri-calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) samples. The value obtained for the reference material was in good agreement with the certified value and with relative standard deviation of 4.1% the precision was acceptable. The value obtained for Ca3(PO4)2 shows a deviation of –6% from the expected value, reflecting the effect of the sample density in bremsstrahlung measurement.

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Abstract  

Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream>creme caramel>jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium.

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Abstract  

Seven trace elements were determined in milk formulas, powder milk and infant food. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the analysis of Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Rb, while As and Cu content was determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Differences were found in the trace element content of foods of the same type. Milk formulas are comparable with human milk according to the results obtained for the elements analyzed. The samples of powder cow's milk presented similar concentrations of the elements studied. Liver with vegetables was found to have the highest Cu content. A meal prepared at home, made of beef and fresh vegetables showed a higher trace element content than its similar commercial one. An estimation of the daily intake of the elements analyzed was made and compared with minimum recommended daily ingestion.

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Thermogravimetric investigation of ancient ceramics

Metrological analysis of sampling

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: V. Drebushchak, Ljudmila Mylnikova, and V. Molodin

Abstract  

Sherds from restored ancient pots taken from archaeological sites of Siberian region (Late Bronze and Early Iron Age, IX–VIII to VII–VI BC) were investigated by thermogravimetry in order to define the effects of sampling. Three types of the sampling were (1) scanning through the inner surface of a pot, (2) outer surface, core, and inner surface of thick-walled sherds, and (3) random fragments of a restored pot. The results of the measurements were shown to depend on two factors, clay paste composition and firing conditions. Redistribution between mass loss at dehydration and dehydroxylation was detected for the ancient ceramics after ‘mild’ firing. The results of the measurements are explained in terms of a temperature profile throughout the wall of a pot during the thermal treatment under firing and cooking meal. The main conclusion of the work is that the thermogravimetric measurements will be very useful for the solution of archaeological problems only if the sampling is correct.

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Abstract  

The use of prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) as a method for detection of the intestinal rare earth marker, samarium, has been evaluated by comparison with thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). PGAA detection has significant advantages with respect to its higher reaction cross section and possible rapid experimental turnaround time. Serious disadvantages are lower neutron fluxes available to the target and nonavailability of numerous PGAA facilities. Results of the technique comparisons are generally very good. Pony fecal concentrations of samarium in samples obtained at various times after administration of a marked meal were measured by both techniques. In only one sample did results of the methods differ by more than the experimental errors involved.

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Choice of a spouse, feasts and games, meals, food and drink, handicraft and arts . This article is a transcript and French translation of the first five chapters of Book 3 of the Latin manuscript by the Jesuit F. X. Eder on the missions or reductions in the Amerindian nations of the Moxos and Baures. It is the continuation of the first seven articles on the Jesuit missions in the now-Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century , entitled:

  1. 1. Lima, Peru, and their inhabitants in the 18th century.
  2. 2. Jesuit missions in the now Bolivian Amazon basin in the 18th century.
  3. 3. Quality of the soil and description of the Indians.
  4. 4. Constructive works, belief and superstitions of the Indians, and how to convince them to join a reduction.
  5. 5. Trees, fruits, plants and mammals.
  6. 6. Birds, hunting, crocodiles, dolphins, fishes and fishing.
  7. 7. Fauna (last part), poisons and antidote, arms used by Indians for hunting and fishing.

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