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The paper focusses on a peculiar but so-far neglected theme in the modern-age history of the relationship between the Hungarian Kingdom, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire: the Hungarian costumes of the Habsburg envoys delegated to the Porte in the 17th century. The highest ranking representatives of the diplomacy of the Habsburg House mostly of West European family ties and traditions – the overwhelming majority of whom had no Hungarian connections at all – wore ornate Hungarian costumes for their official appearances in Constantinople. It is self-evident to wonder: Why did the Habsburg House resort to this solution? and What conclusions of broader relevance can be drawn from the phenomenon? Based on archival researches in archives in Austria and Hungary, the outfit of the envoys can be reconstructed including the particularly accented dolman, fur-lined short coat mente and the Hungarian hat, while the uniquely detailed documentation of the legation of Johann Ludwig Kuefstein also sheds light on who and where produced each item. The research concluded that the Hungarian costume had an emphatic role not only in the relationship between the Habsburg monarchs and the Sublime Porte based on a complex system of symbols, but was also part of the communicational strategy toward the Hungarian estates, for it was manifestation of the exclusive and legitimate but repeatedly questioned domination of the Hungarian Kingdom by the Habsburgs toward both the dignitaries of the Porte and the Hungarian elite.

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). See Péter Hanák, "Historizálás és történetiség a kiegyezés vitájában" [Historicity and Historicality in the Debate on the Compromise] in Péter Hanák, Magyarország a Monarchiában [Hungary in the Monarchy] (Budapest: Gondolat, 1975), 159

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Transfer and Export in Architectural History •

Three Case Studies from the Carpathian Basin

Építés - Építészettudomány
Authors: Zsuzsanna Emília Kiss, Gergő Máté Kovács, and Martin Pilsitz

Transferring a building type from its original context (in the sense of genius loci) into a foreign environment for which it was not intended, is equivalent to transplantation. As the case studies show, the evoked response does not necessarily have to be negative. Rather, this phenomenon is to be understood as an external impulse that influences regional architectural development.

This paper examines the principle of the architectural-historical process in the territory of the Carpathian Basin in three periods. The case studies of the article are derived from the architecture of the Roman era (1st–5th centuries CE), the Ottoman era (16th–17th centuries CE) and the historical industrial architecture of the era of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (19th–20th centuries CE), since the Carpathian Basin, the interference territory of Western and Eastern Europe, Northern Europe and the Balkans, was under the influence of states with centres in a different area. These being the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, all having a determinative influence on the following period’s architecture.

Consequently, the influence of a relatively different culture with global dimensions can be examined within a regional context. This perspective leads to the actual question of architectural history: how the interaction of local and global architectural tendencies and features, the relationship between the centre, semi-periphery and periphery influence the examination of architectural processes and preservation of unique values. By examining the case studies, the paper establishes the categories of architectural transfer and architectural export. The aim of the paper is to stimulate discussions through further examples.

Az olyan eset, amikor egy épülettípus eredeti kontextusából (a genius loci értelmében) átkerül egy, a kialakulási helyéhez képest idegen környezetbe, megegyezik az áttelepítés jelenségével. Amint azt az esettanulmányok mutatják, a kiváltott hatás nem feltétlen negatív, így a jelenséget sokkal inkább egy olyan külső impulzusként lehet értelmezni, amely befolyásolhatja a regionális építészeti fejlődést.

A tanulmány három szakaszban vizsgálja az alapvető építészettörténeti folyamatokat a Kárpátmedence területén. Az írás esettanulmányai a római kor építészetéből (Kr. u. 1–5. század), az oszmán hódoltság korszakából (Kr. u. 16–17. század) és az Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia-korabeli történeti ipari építészet (Kr.u. 19–20. század) témaköreiből származnak. A Kárpát-medence Nyugat- és Kelet-Európa, valamint Észak-Európa és a Balkán-félsziget találkozási pontjában fekszik, és számos olyan államalakulat hatása érte, melynek központja e területen kívülre esett. A Római Birodalom, az Oszmán Birodalom és az Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia jelentős befolyást gyakorolt a vizsgált korszakok és terület építészetére.

Következésképp a területen a tárgyalt időszakokban a helyitől viszonylag eltérő, globális léptékű kultúra hatása vizsgálható, regionális összefüggésben. Ez az aspektus az építészettörténet aktuális kérdéseihez vezet: miként befolyásolja a regionális és globális építészeti tendenciák és tulajdonságok kölcsönhatása, valamint a központ, a félperiféria és a periféria kapcsolata az építészeti folyamatok vizsgálatát és az egyedi értékek megőrzését. Az esettanulmányok vizsgálatával a tanulmány az építészeti transzfer és az építészeti export kategóriáit vezeti be. A szerzők szándéka, hogy írásukkal további példákat bemutató diskurzust ösztönözzenek.

Was wir heute Architekturgeschichte nennen, ist die bauliche Manifestation einer Vielzahl von Faktoren, die auf den vielschichtigen Entstehungsprozess von historischen Gebäuden Einfluss genommen haben. Einer dieser Einflussfaktoren ist der Architekturtransfer, im Sinne eines Austausches von Wissen über das Bauen, der zwischen Regionen, Ländern und Kontinenten wirksam war. Durch diese Erweiterung des Aktionsradius wurde die Wirksamkeit von Architektur in der Baugeschichte vom Regionalen zum Überregionalen vergrößert, ab dem 17. Jh. gar zum Globalen expandiert. Im Rahmen des vorgelegten Artikels kann das Thema nicht umfassend und abschließend aufgearbeitet werden. Vielmehr soll das Phänomen an Fallstudien aus drei verschiedenen Zeitepochen (Römische Bauten 1–5. Jh., Osmanische Bauten 16–17 Jh. und Industriegebäude 19–20. Jh.) des geografisch klar umgrenzten Gebietes der Pannonischen Tiefebene angesprochen und zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Ausgangspunkt der Überlegung ist die Frage, ob der Architekturtransfer hinsichtlich seiner Motivation und seines Mechanismus vom Architekturexport zu unterscheiden ist, oder dieser lediglich eine Variation des Transfers darstellt.

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Since the first publication of Economics of Shortage in 1980, an entire economist generation has grown up, whose members are well-versed in numerous sub-themes of the economic sciences. They find their way around the most modern methodological schools, yet they know significantly less about the workings of the social systems. To the younger generations, the socialist system, whose heritage still lives with us and whose characteristic behavioural forms and attitudes have not yet disappeared at all from the economic practices of the post-socialist countries, seems like the distant past, just like the Turkish occupation or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.The target audience of Kalligram Publishing House is this generation, to the majority of whom János Kornai’s works will probably come as a revelation. The years of crisis — whose end is still far off — has made even those uncertain about the workings of economic systems, who have personal experiences of the decades of socialism. Therefore, it would be quite important for them to re-read Kornai’s works written during the socialist era in order to be able to grasp the workings of economic systems through the help of balanced and objective analyses. Moving beyond the momentary shocks and nostalgias, the older ones also have a great need to evaluate the roles of the market and the state in a bias-free manner resting on a solid theoretical foundation, to realistically see the mechanisms of shortage and surplus economies. This way it is perhaps possible to avoid “going down the same river twice”, which disappears somewhere underground and never reaches the sea.

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A 19. század építészete a szlovák szakmai irodalom kevésbé feldolgozott témái közé tartozik. Behatóbb megismerése több módon lehetséges. Megközelíthető az alkotók életútjain keresztül, vagy a nem egyszer kimagasló minőségű alkotások történetének feltárása által, melyeket a mai Szlovákiának mint a Habsburg Monarchiának, illetve Ausztria-Magyarországnak a kontextusában, valamint Közép-Európa geopolitikai, kulturális és társadalmi összefüggéseiben kell szemügyre vennünk. A 19. század építészetének így értelmezett háttere kihangsúlyozza annak egyedi vonásait, stílus- és típusbeli sokrétűségét, a technológiai haladást és modern elemeit, ugyanakkor rögzíti a helyi építészeti hagyomány és a külső befolyások kapcsolatát, tehát az európai építészet visszatükröződését. E sokszínűséget a klaszszicizmustól a modern hajnaláig jelentőségükkel a régió határait túllépő személyiségek képviselik, kezdve a sort Hefele Menyhérttel és lezárva azt Dušan S. Jurkovičcsal vagy Harminc M. Mihállyal.

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The individual and his limits

Discourses of border and ethnicity in two interwar völkisch novels

Hungarian Studies
Author: Gergely Romsics

This paper attempts to explore the identity politics component of two völkisch novels from the 1920s that grapple with the question of the identity of Germans from the old Austrian empire. The two authors, Bruno Brehm and Emil Lucka, were popular prose writers of the interwar period who partook of the general questioning, criticism and rethinking of the 19th century ideologies that occurred after the Great War. Their work — from the vantage point of the history of ideologies — may be interpreted as embedded in the language game of the German conservative revolution, especially in the currents that emphasized the permanent and essential characteristics associated with belonging to an ethnic group and the ethical consequences for individuals of this belonging. For this reason, this paper first briefly introduces post-1918 German völkisch ideology and proceeds to interpret the identity politics of the novels by making use of the key concepts of this strand of “young conservative” [jungkonservativ] thought. The key concept for interpreting the ambiguous experience of “being Austrian”, i.e., belonging to the greater community of Germans, yet having had to suffer through centuries of living in a separate state became that of the borderland [Grenzland], a complex notion that dialectically united the experiences of heroically struggling to “remain German,” while being threatened with loss of ethnic character through exposure to cosmopolitanism or assimilation. By showing how the discourse of Grenzland structures the narratives, the paper seeks to provide a reminder that the discourses of identity in early 20th century Austria were more complex than is often remembered: alongside late modernity, as represented and reflected by authors like Robert Musil and Elias Canetti, a different, more popular and more political trend also existed, which narrated the break-up of the Dual Monarchy and its aftermath in the context of the threatened existence of the Germans of the borderland.

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Aleas of history and frontiers of modernity

László Ravasz (1882–1975) and the interwar catholic-protestant rapprochement in Hungary

Hungarian Studies
Author: Pál Hatos

Liberal academics and enthusiastic lay audiences hailed the public debuts of the Calvinist theologian and acclaimed orator László Ravasz as the leading representative of a new generation of modernist clergymen in the early 1910s. Much to the regret of his liberal critics, in the wake of the collapse of historic Hungary following World War I his message stemmed from a modern cult and culture of defeat and was in no way a continuation of the old school liberals of the belle époque of the Dual Monarchy. In his memoires, which were written during the 1960s, Ravasz described his erstwhile political views as “fetishes,” but defended his theological motives. This raises questions concerning a central problem of modern religious experience: how can one map the constantly evolving frontiers between rampant secularization and the no less permanent and certainly insatiable nostalgia for the sacred order of things in modern societies? By redefining what is religious, the currents of Protestant and Catholic thought in interwar Hungary presented in the following article established intellectual contexts on both sides that make not only the historical description of Christian identity but also the very notion of modernity a function of multi-layered readings. At the same time, the Catholic and Protestant rapprochement may be interpreted as a symptom of the decline of religious explanations of the world and history, because they testify to the fact that the dialectics of historical interpretation are no longer defined by the particular approaches of Catholic or Protestant theology or the differences between the two, but rather by the state of competition between universalist utopias and religious world explanations forced into the conservative camp, which necessarily bleaches the emphatic elements of Christian teachings as well.

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Abstract  

Statistics: Order-disorder problems in many-particle statistics may be solved by the Lagrange principle: L=TlogP+E→maximum! L is the Lagrange function, logP the entropy and E a special condition of order for a system of interacting objects. T is an ordering parameter: for low values of T order (E), for high values of T, disorder or chaos (logP) will be at maximum. Natural sciences: The Lagrange principle corresponds to Gibbs energy. The cohesive energy E leads to the three structures of matter: the well-ordered solid and the disordered liquid and gas. In binary systems, L leads to phase diagrams and solubility or segregation of materials. Society: L corresponds to common happiness, which has to be at maximum for a stable society. Emotions E: sympathy, apathy, antipathy lead to three social structures: the well-ordered hierarchy and the disordered democracy and the global state. In binary societies(women-men, black-non-black, Catholics-non-Catholics) intermarriage diagrams correspond to phase diagrams and show the state of integration or segregation, peace or war of the society. Economics: L corresponds to common benefit, which has to be at maximum for a stable economy, and leads to a (capitalistic) Boltzmann distribution of property E. Economic cycles of production and trade correspond to Carnot cycles of a gas in engineering sciences: a motor works at two different temperatures, economic cycles will tend to produce two different standards of living, rich and poor, or first and the third world. History: Industrial development corresponds to a heating curve of alloys: the growing productivity has melted away the inflexible structure of monarchies, and has (slowly) transformed Europe into a flexible democratic structure. The French Revolution may be regarded as (first-order) phase transition. Recent takeovers of very big companies show a trend to global activity, free from national ties.

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Abstract

The restoration of the Castle Esterházy in Eszterháza and the reproductions of its Interiors in Budapest and Vienna at the End of the 19th Century. The restoration of the Castle in Eszterháza was made between 1891–1896/1897 by the Viennese Company Friedrich Otto Schmidt. In course of the restoration work were furniture and wall revetments of the 18th century restored, complemented by modern pieces and also copies of the original luxury Esterházy-furniture were made. The reputation of the Company went established by the restoration of Fertod castle in the whole Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy. In the 1896 Millenary Exhibition of Budapest the copy of a suite of rooms of the castle was on show. This was later not accepted by the Budapest Museum of Applied Arts in his permanent exhibition because Director Jeno Radisics has considered the Rococo style of the castle as a break with the organic evolution of Hungarian art and was also opposed by principles to the substitution of historical objects by copies.

The Schmidt Company has exhibited 1898 in the Assembly Room of the Winter Exhibition of the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie a so-called exact copy of the Apollo-Room of Eszterháza, really a series of copies of French Rococo luxury furniture. As a program of exact copy, this interior can be considered as a radical break with the former practice of Historicism. By this change a crisis was caused in the relationship of the Director Arthur von Scala to the Kunstgewerbeverein in Vienna and by the survival of Historicism also to the circle of the Secession.

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The article offers a definition of the concept of anti-modernity, based at first on Antoine Compagnon’s 2005-volume Les antimodernes, de Joseph de Maistre à Roland Barthes. The role of the mundane sociability of the aristocracy, returned from emigration, and of the aesthetic culture of political legitimism is examined in the acclimatization process of German Romanticism in France during the Empire, the Restoration, and the first years of the July Monarchy. A hypothesis is proposed about the connections between Liszt’s interpretation of the Faust myth as it is exposed in the poems of Goethe and Lenau, on the one hand, and the political, aesthetical, and ideological resistance of French artists from the first half of the 19th century, directed against modernity, liberal individualism, the upheavals of the 1789 Revolution, and the rationalist constructivism of the Enlightenment, on the other. A survey of the aesthetics of negativity and its musical implications in Liszt’s compositions inspired by Faust reveals that the composer distanced himself from the “naive modernism” (Compagnon) of many of his contemporaries and came close to the flamboyant aesthetic of Chateaubriand’s Christian Vanity as well as to the scepticism, related in our post-modernist era with the idea of progress and of the completed work. Thus, Liszt’s relationship to the myth and the character of Faust becomes much more complex and ambiguous than it usually appears in the French literature, where Liszt’s view on the Faustian freedom is associated systematically and rather simplistically with the modern and liberal process of the individual’s emancipation.

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