Monitoring of the concentration of actinides in process streams and waste materials can be effectively carried out by detecting and measuring their radioactive emissions. Such monitoring techniques lead to more efficient control of the process, and also aid in the minimisation of losses to the waste and better accounting of the nuclear materials. This paper provides an overview of some of the techniques such as on-line alpha monitoring, passive and active neutron assay and gamma counting, and also describes the monitoring systems which have been developed in our laboratory for use in a reprocessing plant.
Authors:M. Tóth, S. Lerche, U. Holz, A. Kerber, R. Henning, E. Voigt, and D. Kelemen
emergence of the cherry fruit fly with ammonium carbonate bait traps . J. Econ. Entomol. 45 , 262 – 263 .
Höhne , F. and Kuhnke , K.-H. ( 2015 ): Monitoring sea buckthorn fly in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in 2014 . Natural resources and bioeconomic
To meet the need for studies of anaerobic microbial and animal cell cultures involving much lower heat effects as compared
to aerobic microbial cultures, a bench scale calorimeter, Bio-RCl, has been improved for achieving a higher long-term sensitivity.
This newly improved Bio-RCl was used for heat measurement of anaerobic growth of Lactobacillus helveticus. The results showed
that the bench-scale calorimetry has powerful potential for on-line monitoring and control of anaerobic bioprocesses as well
as fundamental studies, such as stoichiometry, thermodynamics and kinetics of cellular growth.
Authors:Anna Füzy, Ibolya Biró, Ramóna Kovács, and Tünde Takács
The characterization of mycorrhizal status in hosts can be a good indicator of symbiotic associations in inoculation experiments or in ecological research. The most common microscopic-based observation methods, such as (i) the gridline intersect method, (ii) the magnified intersections method and (iii) the five-class system of Trouvelot were tested to find the most simple, easily executable, effective and objective ones and their appropriate parameters for characterization of mycorrhizal status. In a pot experiment, white clover (Trifolium repens L.) host plant was inoculated with 6 (BEG144; syn. Rhizophagus intradices) in pumice substrate to monitor the AMF colonization properties during host growth. Eleven (seven classical and four new) colonization parameters were estimated by three researchers in twelve sampling times during plant growth. Variations among methods, observers, parallels, or individual plants were determined and analysed to select the most appropriate parameters and sampling times for monitoring. The comparability of the parameters of the three methods was also tested. As a result of the experiment classical parameters were selected for hyphal colonization: colonization frequency in the first stage or colonization density in the later period, and arbuscular richness of roots. A new parameter was recommended to determine vesicule and spore content of colonized roots at later stages of symbiosis.
Nowadays more and more engineering structures are constructed on soft soils of low strength. High compressibility, low permeability and liability to secondary compression of these soils can result in long-term settlements and a menace with critical situations when the construction deadlines are tough. To cope with these problems several technologies have recently been developed in the embankment construction practice. Staged construction, over-filling, vertical drainage, stone columns, dynamic compaction — all of them often combined successfully with geosynthetics — are preferred to the previously predominant technology of soil replacement. Nevertheless, common design methods often do not balance properly the structural modeling, computation, economical and construction aspects. This is why a correct design may become a subject of reconsideration and modification in specific circumstances. There remains a room for innovative approaches, when conventional solutions are used. Two examples seem to prove that construction combined with monitoring may turn out to be good compromises.