This paper will discuss the problems of measurement in the theory of organization. The development of methods of measuring is shown to be a condition for progress to this theory. The basic components of measurement are discussed. main shortcomings involved in the concepts of measurement of features of organization are presented. Their sources, and the consequences of their existence for solving organization problems, are demonstrated. Suggestion for elaborations regarding the elimination of drawbacks will be presented.
Authors:Sari Piippo, Paula Saavalainen, Juhani Kaakinen, and Eva Pongrácz
Municipal solid waste management is a basic service that, in Finland, consists of collection, transportation and treatment systems provided by municipalities, waste management companies and producer responsibility organizations. The amount of municipal solid waste in Finland has risen quite steadily for many decades. In 2012, the recovery rate of municipal solid waste as material or energy was 67%. The Finnish Waste Act has been updated in 2012, with the key goal to further reduce waste amounts and progress recycling. The paper describes the best practices in strategic waste management planning and describes the organization of municipal solid waste in city of Oulu, Finland.
The paper addresses the potential of Internet mailing lists to enhance academic research with respect to Gibbons' distinction between Mode I and Mode II knowledge production (Gibbons et al., 1994). We examine threaded email messages in a selection of Self-Organization and Science & Technology Studies oriented Internet mailing lists to illustrate the internal dynamics involved in the electronic production of knowledge. Of particular interest is the EuroCon-Knowflow mailing list which houses the electronic communication of the Self-Organization of the European Information Society (SOEIS) research group.
The research focuses upon the discussion threads of mailing lists. The use of threaded messages as our hermeneutic units of analysis provides the basis for a reflection upon three key theoretical positions: Medium Theory, Actor-Network Theory, and Self-Organization Theory. With respect to the latter, we measure for self-organized criticality by comparing the frequency and size of threaded messages. Using this and other methods as operationalized modes of theorizing we reveal network dynamics particular to the Internet mailing list.
This review discusses studies of informal communication of scientific and technical information published in the American management literature between 1976 and 1982. While investigated formerly by information scientists, the subject has been mentioned only infrequently in the literature and abstracts of information science in recent years. Management scientists view the informal information transfer as a special type of organizational communication. Among the papers reviewed, special attention is accorded to the publications byTushman who has extended and developedAllen's approach. The implications of the insights gained for the information worker and information scientist are discussed in the conclusions.
Many new journals are started in response to increasing specialization and limited space in existing journals. In this study
two journals in organization research are studied,Administrative Science Quarterly as the first mover in the field andOrganization Studies as the challenger. It is shown that the new journal gradually differ from the old in terms of the national origin of its
authors as well as the documents cited. It is concluded that the scientific journal market may not mirror the copy-cat behaviour
found among newspapers or companies in other markets.
This study analysed how leadership and organizational support (LOS) influences creative knowledge environments for research
groups in biotechnology. A questionnaire distributed to 90 (97% responding) university and business company researchers resulted
in that leadership was rated higher than organizational support. First, leaders were more important to creativity than organizational
support. Secondly, LOS differed to a limited extent between members and leaders, universities and business companies and excellent
and less excellent groups. Thirdly, working freedom was rated higher in universities than in business companies. Fourthly,
group members perceived they were more encouraged to think freely in comparison to their group leaders. Finally, innovation
goals were more pronounced in excellent than less excellent groups.
The ultrastructure, neuroanatomy and central projection patterns, including the intercellular connections of the statocyst hair cells of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, were studied, applying different intra- and extracellular cellular staining techniques combined with correlative light- and electron microscopy. Based on the ultrastructure different hair cells could be distinguished according to their vesicle and granule content, meanwhile the general organization of the sensory neurons was rather uniform, showing clearly separated perinuclear and “vesicular” cytoplasmic regions. Following intra- and extracellular labeling with fluorescence dyes or HRP a typical, local arborization of the hair cells was demonstrated in the cerebral ganglion neuropil, indicating a limited input-output system connected to the process of gravireception. Correlative light- and electron microscopy of HRP-labeled hair cells revealed both axo-somatic and axo-axonic output contacts of hair cell varicosities, and input on sensory axons located far from the terminal arborizations. Our findings suggest (i) a versatile ultrastructural background of hair cells corresponding possibly to processing different gravireceptive information, and (ii) the synaptic (or non-synaptic) influence of gravireception at different anatomical (terminal, axonal and cell body) levels when processed centrally. The results may also serve as a functional morphological background for previously obtained physiological and behavioral observations.
Studies of strafication in science have increasingly accepted the idea that science is a highly stratified and elitist system with skewed distributions of productivity and rewards. Attempts to explain the higher productivity of higher status scientists by pointing to their greater ease of publication as far as acceptance of their work by journals and publishers is concerned were not supported by the data in some recent studies. If status in general does not confer greater ease of publication the present paper argues that position within a research organization does confer greater ease of author — or co-authorship — and this is the major explanatory variable accounting for productivity differences within research laboratories as far as quantity of articles (and books) is concerned. upward moves in a laboratory's formal or informal position hierarchy are associated with a change of a scientist's research involvement from goal executing to goal setting functions as well as with an increasing access to scientific manpower and project money. Goal setting tasks provide for a significant reduction of time-expenditures in research necessary to assure that the scientist is identified with the research results; consequently, they allow for an involvement in more research tasks than originally. Equivalently, resources in scientific manpower and project money act as a multiplying element as far as quantity of output is concerned.
Authors:Emmanuel Lazega, Lise Mounier, Marie-Thér?se Jourda, and Rafaël Stofer
The difference between individual social capital and organizational (or corporate) social capital has been an important topic
of research in sociology during the past decade. The existence of this difference between two forms of social capital evokes
an old question in a new manner: what matters most in explaining individual actors' performance? Is it personal social or
collective resources provided by the organization to which the individuals belong and in which they work? In this paper we
provide a preliminary answer to this question based on a multi-level network study of the top 'elites' in French cancer research
during 1996-1998. By multi-level we mean that we reconstituted both the inter-organizational networks of exchange between
most French laboratories carrying out cancer research in 1999; simultaneously, we reconstituted key social networks of the
top individual elites in cancer research in France during that same year. Given our 'linked design' (i.e., knowing to which
laboratory each researcher belongs), we were able to disentangle the effects of structural properties of the laboratory from
the effects of characteristics of the individual researcher (including structural ones) on the latter's performance. Performance
was measured by a score based on the impact factor of the journal in which each researcher published. Our results show that
organizational social capital matters more, and more consistently, than individual relational capital in explaining variations
in performance by French top cancer researchers.