Competing groups in a population will be integrated or segregated depending on their contest strategies.
In this work a population of a fixed proportion of hawks and doves is supposed to be able to employ two different contest
strategies, one more competitive than the other one. Energies are derived for populations employing these strategies and these
energies depend on the availability of the resource for which hawks and doves compete.
The energy for the less competitive strategy is lower than the other one when the resource is abundant. In that case hawks
and doves can be in cohabitation in all proportions. If, however, the resource is scarce, the energy of the more competitive
strategy is lower than the other one. In that case complete segregation of hawks and doves into colonies will result.
The situation is akin to the phase pressure diagram of a binary solution with eutectic point, miscibility gap in the liquid
phase and complete miscibility in the vapour phase.
Authors:T. Nishimura, H. Iwasaki, M. Takahashi, and M. Takeda
127I Mössbauer spectra for the phenyliodonium ylides were measured at 20 K. The valence electron populations (Ns, Nx-z) and the charge number (ZI) for iodine atom are estimated from the Mössbauer parameters. The obtained populations were very close to those of diphenyliodonium chloride having two I-C primary bonds. To examine the possibility of some double bond character, the electron populations for the case of Nz = 1.90 are estimated. In this case, the ZI values become larger as 1.2-1.3, and these values were unreasonably large because the values are close to those of PhICl2, PhI(OAc)2 having electron withdrawing ligands. Thereby, 127I Mössbauer parameters suggest little double bond character for phenyliodonium ylides.
A simple method employing neutron activation and radiochemical separation was developed for simultaneous determination of the concentrations of232Th(Th) and238U(U) in biological materials. Using this method, it is possible to detect 0.05 and 0.2 ng of Th and U, respectively, in the samples. This method was applied to determine the daily dietary intake of these two nuclides by the population living in the high background areas of India (Monazite area), where the soil contains very high levels of these two nuclides. The comparison of the daily intakes by the population living in high and normal background areas showed significantly higher intake of these two nuclides by the high background population.
Authors:O. Bondarenko, B. Aryasov, and N. Tsygankov
This paper estimates the body content and excretion levels of Pu from the combined intake from the global and Chernobyl fallout. The approach developed allows to estimate the contributions from each component. This approach is necessary for estimating the average and collective doses to the population of different regions or settlements. Verifications of this approach have been made using autopsy data (the early stage of the accident, Kiev residents, the late stage inhabitants of the Ovruch region) which are in good agreement. Assessment of the dose from transuranics to the population of the Ukraine required using bioassay data. This was achieved by measuring the urinary excretion of Pu.
Authors:T. Martinez, J. Lartigue, P. Avila-Perez, G. Zarazua, M. Navarrete, S. Tejeda, and A. Ramírez
Trace elements were determined by TXRF in whole blood samples in a randomly non-occupational exposed population living in
the Metropolitan Zone of the Mexico Valley (MZMV). Arithmetic and geometric means of S, Ca, Cu, Zn, Rb and Pb concentrations,
were on the reported range values for non-occupational population in other countries, while those of K and Br were higher,
possibly due to dietary habits and geographical or environmental factors. The noticeable decline in blood lead level (91%)
should be positively perceived. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a certified IAEA-A13 was tested.
Authors:N. Sdrndarski, D. Golobočanin, and I. Tutunovič
Statistical tests were performed on the -spectrometry measurement data obtained during the last decade for the natural radionuclides40K,226Ra and232Th, in water samples collected from the Danube River, the Sava River and its tributaries, ground waters and artificial lakes. The lognormal radiopotassium distribution indicates a single statistical population. The presence of break points in the frequency distribution plots indicates that data for226Ra and232Th do not come from a single statistical population. The annual iongestion of40K,226Ra and232Th was calculated and expressed in Bq y–1.
Authors:L. Kovacs, C. Zamboni, L. Oliveira, V. Salvador, I. Sato, and M. Azevedo
The concentrations of Cl, K and Na were analyzed in human body fluids (whole blood and serum) using NAA, resulting in the
first biochemical baseline values for the Brazilian population. These data permitted us a discussion about the advantages
and limitations of using this analytical technique for clinical chemistry.
Authors:M. Simonoff, Y. Llabador, C. Hamon, B. Berdeu, G. Simonoff, C. Conri, B. Fleury, P. Couzigou, and A. Lucena
We present the results of a 3 year study concerning serum vanadium measured by neutron activation analysis for 87 subjects from three populations (healthy controls, depressives, cirrhotics). We found depressives to have higher levels but no significant difference between cirrhotics and controls.
Fifty five samples were analysed for 10 trace elements by INAA. In the absence of identified samples of known origin, similarities
between the samples were established by constructing a minimal spanning tree based on 5 selected elements. Thereafter grouping
was tested using concentration, sum of concentration, and normalised concentration indices. From the results, tentative patterns
of population movement can be deduced.
The training process and training programs in both commercial nuclear plants and Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities have improved significantly in the years following the Three-Mile Island (TMI) accident. This article describes some of these changes, including the reasons behind the change, the affected population, the training accreditation process and performance-based training, and the benefits of the changes.