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The fourth countrywide nutrition survey was initiated and co-ordinated by the Hungarian Food Safety Office jointly to the yearly Household Budget Survey of Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 2009. The dietary assessment was performed by trained interviewers and skilled dieticians using a complex questionnaire system, containing three-day diary, short food frequency questionnaire and questions on taking of dietary supplements and on prevalence of food allergy. The data records were processed and the questionnaires were validated, the results obtained on the micronutrient intakes of the adult population are shown in this article. From fat soluble vitamins, the average daily intakes of vitamins A and D were lower than the national recommendations in case of both genders, meaning low intake for around 60% (in case of retinol) and 80–90% (in case of calciferols) of adults. The intakes of some water soluble vitamins belonging to B group, vitamin C and folates were low as well. Regarding the macroelements, the most important health problem on population level is the extremely high sodium load of the inhabitants, combined with unfavourable sodium/potassium ratio. The average daily calcium intake of every age and gender group was far below the recommended value. The average daily intake of iron was low for the 50% of adult females. The article also provides data on frequency of food supplement taking habits of inhabitants and of self-reported food allergy.

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The biological and toxicological importance of molybdenum in the environment and in the nutrition of plants, animals and man

Part IV: The molybdenum intake of adults with mixed and vegetarian diets in Germany and Mexico (duplicate portion studies)

Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M. Anke, S. Holzinger, M. Seifert, R. Müller, and U. Schäfer

The molybdenum intake by German and Mexican adults (21 test populations) aged 20 to 69 years with mixed and ovolactovegetarian diets were determined. Each test group consisted of at least 7 women and 7 men, which collected all consumed foodstuffs and beverages as visually estimated duplicates on 7 successive days. The balance studies were carried out with 8 test populations (women and men) with mixed and ovolactovegetarian diets. People with mixed diet in Germany consumed, on average, 89 (women) and 100 μg Mo/day (men), whereas in Mexico they took in 160 and 210 μg Mo/day, respectively. German ovolactovegetarians consumed ∼175 μg Mo/day. Male adults of Germany consumed 21% more molybdenum than women. This difference is the result of a 24% higher dry matter intake by males. The residence place, its geological origin and time of examination influenced the molybdenum intake significantly (60–115 μg Mo/day). The normative molybdenum requirement of adults amounts to 25 μg/day, with women needing 20 and men 25 μg/day. As a rule approximately only one-third of the absorbed molybdenum is excreted renally, the rest faecally. Breast feeding mothers excreted 11% via milk, 56% faecally and 33% renally. The apparent absorption rate of molybdenum amounted to 37% in humans with mixed and vegetarian diets, whereas it reached 44% in breast-feeding mothers. The calculation of molybdenum consumption (basket method) overestimated the molybdenum intake by 50% in comparison to chemical determination by the duplicate portion method.

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Sensory acceptance of four trials of probiotic petit-suisse cheese was investigated. Cheeses were prepared using Streptococcus thermophilus TA 040 as starter not supplemented with any probiotic culture (T1-control), Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (T2), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04 (T3) and L. acidophilus + B. animalis subsp. lactis (T4). Sensory acceptance tests were performed after 7 and 14 days of storage at 4±1 °C, using a 9-point hedonic scale to evaluate flavour, texture and overall acceptability. The population of La-5 and BL04 remained at 7.0 log CFU g −1 and at 8.0 log CFU g-1, respectively, during storage for up to 28 days. After 7 and 14 days of storage, cheese T4 presented the highest sensory acceptance for all attributes evaluated and differed significantly from the other cheeses (P<0.05). After 14 days of storage, cheese T3 presented the lowest acceptance and differed significantly from the other cheeses (P<0.05). The supplementation of petit-suisse cheese T4 with both La-5 and BL04 in coculture with a starter culture resulted in a product with high probiotic populations during storage and excellent sensory acceptance. The results also showed that, when added separately, La-5 and BL04 did not affect the sensory acceptability of petit-suisse cheese.

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Abstract

Nowadays heuristic methods are one of the most used tools for the optimization of problems. The proof of that is the fact that they are widely used in chemistry, economics and energy. Among the most popular of heuristic methods belongs differential evolution, belonging to the so-called ‘evolutionary algorithms’. They can handle difficult, large-scale problems with many parameters, like the optimization of the hydro-thermal coordination of hydro and thermal power plants. As with any other method, differential evolution also has certain parameters. These parameters, among others, are the size of the population, the maximum number of generations, crossover parameter and mutation factor. The effect of these parameters on the results of an optimization using differential evolution is the focus of this paper. The hydro-thermal coordination of one hydro and one thermal power plant was used as an example to explain this issue.

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Slovak Republic and Taiwan R.O.C. have both similarities in geomorphologic landscape structures and urban divisions that create notable energy potential premises. They also are facing similar energy deficiency issues. Large population difference makes also premises for good prognosis study. Both countries are viably engaged in research on renewable resources. Proposed idea is dealing with the energy resource decentralization caused by not underestimated development of micro-urbanism, applying the autarchic grids arranged in the idea of ‘electric power grid circles’ binding micro-urban structures together and at the same time creates smart energy communities using renewable energy micro-systems. Current water turbine’s efficiency rose up to 96%. Proposed multi-purpose micro-hydro type might be one of the reliable renewable resources applicable in this kind of situations.

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Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, the standards of living conditions are defined by the current financial and economic situation. It has impacts on the smallest details of everyday life as well as on residential purchases and constructions also. These are the sectors that mainly felt the lack of funding in the recent years. Although the treatment of this problem should be a simple answer, ecological, economical and social factors generate a more difficult solution. A very important issue in today’s society concerns making the use of the un-preferred living spaces within an existing home. There are many types of these living spaces, including for example out-of-date country buildings that have lost their function, or a variety of apartments in the cities. It became clear that living in prefabricated (panel) buildings is the most undesirable for the population, so the biggest part of the research is about the theoretical rehabilitation of these buildings.

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Nowadays heuristic methods are one of the most used tools for the optimization of problems. The proof of that is the fact that they are widely used in chemistry, economics and energy. Among the most popular of heuristic methods belong the genetic algorithms. They can handle difficult, large-scale problems with many parameters, like the optimization of the hydrothermal coordination of hydro and thermal power plants. As with any other method, genetic algorithms also have certain parameters. These parameters, among others, are the size of the population, the maximum number of generations, and the probability of crossovers and mutations. The effect of these parameters on the results of an optimization using genetic algorithms is the focus of this paper. The hydro-thermal coordination of one hydro and one thermal power plant was used as an example to explain this issue.

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In biological wastewater treatment technologies the majority of the systems are based on activated sludge technology. In these systems the population structure and dynamics of the activated sludge microbial community is largely governed by indirect regulatory mechanisms, such as the aerated/non-aerated reactors, reactor configurations and sludge recycling ratios. The development of polymer gels provides opportunities to fabricate microscopic size bioreactors for wastewater treatment. PVA-PAS (polyvinyl alcohol- polyacrylic acid copolymer) polymers proved to be effective. The primary object of our analyses is to study the nanotechnologically constructed micro-reactors in MBR systems. In this paper a case study is presented where the operational problems of artificial flocs in an MBR system were investigated.

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Typical Calabrian cured meat products, produced with meat of local and commercial pig breeds were evaluated and characterized for their quality and homogeneity. Sensory, microbiological and physicochemical analyses were carried out at the end of cured meat products ripening. A wide statistical variability was observed in these commercial products due to both company and different productions. The mineral composition was similar to that observed by other authors in similar cured meat products; the statistical analysis revealed only a difference among the samples for magnesium (P<0.01) and for calcium (P<0.05) contents. According to the performed sensory analysis, the meat products were acceptable with some differences due to both production and company variables. About microbial populations, the most abundant were lactic acid bacteria and total aerobic bacteria, while enterobacteria were less represented.

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Companies are facing a rapidly changing and ever more challenging environment. Globalization, together with a shifting political landscape, is combining with major transformations in population, urbanization, resource utilization, climate change and consumer attitudes. Through the evolution of communications networks there is growing connectivity that with the rise of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) results in an increasingly transparent society. Socially responsible investors combining forces with the media and NGOs have emerged as a major force compelling firms through the capital markets toward a more environment friendly behaviour. The global food industry is especially susceptible to climate change and shifting consumer attitudes and thus has to increasingly respond to external stakeholders in order to remain competitive. How did attitudes and perceptions change in recent years toward the industries environmental performance and how did this influence their financial results? Our research investigates forty-six global food industry companies.

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