The National Bureau of Standards has, for the past five years, been developing natural-matrix, environmental-level radioactivity Standard Reference Materials in large quantities to be available to users over a ten year time period. These materials have been found to be useful for the evaluation of radiochemical methods and analysis, as interlaboratory comparison materials, and as quality assurance materials. To date, six Standard Reference Materials have been issued: River Sediment, Human Lung, Human Liver, Rocky Flats Soil-1, Freshwater Lake Sediment, and Peruvian Soil. The concentrations of twenty radionuclides have been certified in these materials.
Neutron activation analysis is one of many analytical techniques used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the certification of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). NAA competes favorably with all other techniques because of it's unique capabilities for high accuracy even at very low concentrations for many elements. In this paper, instrumental and radiochemical NAA results are described for 25 elements in two new NIST SRMs, SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and SRM 1547 (Peach Leaves), and are compared to the certified values for 19 elements in these two new botanical reference materials.
The biologically essential trace element, iodine, has been determined in various milk products by epithermal neutron activation analysis /ENAA/ after sealing in quartz and irradiating under cadmium cover. The method was extended to several IAEA and NBS biological reference materials.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of 23 elements and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) was used for the determination of 10 elements in U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) 1633A Fly Ash Standard Reference Material (SRM). The results are in excellent agreement with the limited number of NBS certified values available.
A homogeneity test of 14 elements (Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ce, Th, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Zn, Co and Eu) was made in Chinese Biological Standard Reference Material (peach leaves) by means of INAA. The procedures are described and the results are presented and discussed.
IAEA standard reference material SOIL-7 has been analyzed by both instrumental NAA and radiochemical NAA using epithermal
neutron activation. These analyses confirm the NAA value of Ag in the intercomparison SOIL-7 which disagrees with some AAS
values. Further geostandards were included and compared with literature data.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the simultaneous determination of up to 33 elements including major, minor and trace elements in the environmental reference materials soil and coal fly ash from China. The procedure involves both short and long irradiations followed by the measurement of the gamma spectra with a Ge(Li) detector. The analytical results are presented and discussed.
Results are presented from the INAA of 34 elements in NIST and USGS geological reference materials that were analysed relative to multielemental SRM-1633a Coal Flyash standards. The data compare favorably with works reported by other investigators. The application of historical control charts for continuous monitoring of quality assurance and detection of systematic errors is demonstrated.
Silver in selected, predominantly biological, reference materials (NIST SRM 1515, 1547, 1549, 1566a, 1571, 1577b, 2704, CTA-OTL-1,
and Bowen’s Kale) was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two different analytical modes: instrumental NAA
with epithermal neutrons (ENAA), and NAA with radiochemical separation (RNAA). The ENAA mode was based on long-time 5-hour
irradiation of samples in a special Cd lined box with counting after 8-month decay. The RNAA procedure consisted in 20-hour
irradiation of samples, their decomposition/dissolution by alkaline-oxidative fusion, and precipitation of AgCl including
several purification steps. Both methods provided Ag contents in the analyzed reference materials consistent with certified
and/or literature values down to the ng·g−1 level.
Authors:R. Filby, S. Nguyen, S. Campbell, A. Bragg, and C. Grimm
Three proposed National Bureau of Standards clay standard reference materials, flint clay SRM 97b, plastic clay, SRM 98b, and brick, SRM 679 were investigated for homogeneity with respect to their contents of Sm, La, Sc, Th, Hf, As, Ga, Fe and Cr. Sub-samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and replicate determinations were made on nominal sample weights of 100, 400, 750, and 1000 g. For Sm, La, Sc and Th, no increase in the relative standard deviation with decreasing sample weight was observed in all SRMs indicating that subsampling error for these elements was not a large component of the overall error. For Ga in all SRMs and Cr, As and Fe in SRM 98b, an increase in the relative standard deviation with decreasing sample weight suggests that these elements are concentrated in a minor component of the sample. The three clays should be good reference materials for trace element microanalysis for the elements investigated.